Mystics of the first half of the seventh century AH

As we are approaching the third period of the Islamic mysticism, that means the boom period, the environment and conditions for the emergence of such a period is provided.
Mystics of the first half of the seventh century AH
Mystics of the first half of the seventh century AH

 

Translator: Majid Jamalzadeh
Source: rasekhoon.net







 

As we are approaching the third period of the Islamic mysticism, that means the boom period, the environment and conditions for the emergence of such a period is provided. First four decades of seventh century is in such space. Thus, great figures in the history of mysticism who are important have been appeared in this era and the most important of them are as follows:

1-NAJMOLDIN KOBRA (death: 618):

He is one of the big stars in the mysticism. He was disciple of BABA FARAJ TABRIZI, SHEIKH ESMAIL GHASRI, SHEIKH AMAR YASER and RUZBAHAN BAGHLI and his groom. He has fostered many disciples. The most important of them are: SAADODIN HAMOUI, BABA KAMAL KHOJANDI and many more.
He started to study physical science, and became master in the said subject, so in debate, he was better than all. But at a meeting with BABA FARAJ TABRIZI, a change occurred in him, BABA FARAJ, gave him, his own cloak and asked him to leave the official sciences. Then in DEZFUL city, by munificence, became the disciple of SHEIKH ESMAIL GHASRI. For some time, he was under training of the said master, till he received the internal sciences.
One night in a dream, he found that, in internal science, he is same as his master and in appearance science, he is better than his master.
In the morning SHEIKH called him and said: get up and travel. Go to AMAR YASER and get training from him. KOBRA said to himself: I understood that, SHIKH came to know about my dream. So he went to AMAR and started to learn from him. After sometime, he saw the same dream. Again this master called him and told him: go to Egypt and learn from RUZBAHAN, he will remove the world from your head by a slap. When KOBRA reached to RUZBAHAN, he saw master was busy in taking the ablution. At this moment, he thought this religious ablution is not correct. KOBRA continuous: suddenly I saw a dream, it was resurrection day, many people were forced to go to hell, I saw SHIKH RUZBAHAN in my dream also, who gave me a hard slap, and I fell down, then SHIKH said: don’t deny the right people. Dream vanished, and I went to RUZBAHAN, and fell upon his feet. In reality, SHIKH gave me a hard slap and told me what he mentioned in dream. Then he ordered me to go back to AMAR YASER. And wrote a letter to AMAR and said: send as much as copper you have, I will convert them to gold.
NAJMODIN KOBRA was having another name also, some were calling him as scientist maker. It is because, he was finding the talented fellows and in short duration he was converting them to scientist. One of his miracles was prediction of Mongol invasion, and said: fire will raise from the east and will burn everything till west. when Mongols reached to KHARAZM, he sent away some talented fellows like SAADODIN HAMOUI and RAZIODIN ALI LALA, and ordered other of his companions for Jihad, and then said: I will be martyr here, when Mongols entered the city, he fought with pagan and became martyr in 618.

2-MAJDOLDIN BAGHDADI (death: 607 or 616)

He was originally from Baghdad, because his parents were doctors, by the request of king KHARAZM, from Caliph of Baghdad, they migrated to KHARAZM. He was disciple of NAJMOLDON KOBRA. And since youth was trained by master. KOBRA, predicted about his death in sea, and after a short period, King MOHAMMAD KHARAZM, because of a problem, ordered to drown him in DEJLEH River. When the news reached to NAJMOLDIN, he said: we are from the God and we will return back to him, then he prayed to God and requested God to take revenge and demolish the kingdom of MOHAMMAD KHARAZM. When this news reached to the king, he approached to master and apologized for the murder. Master answered: very soon your head and mine and many will be cut off. In a short period Mongols event, appeared and many lost their lives.

3-FARIDOLDIN MOHAMMAD ATTAR NEISHABURI (618 to 627 AH):

He is one of the most prominent Islamic mystics. The pinnacle of literary mysticism, which is one of the various aspects of Islamic mysticism, shows itself in works of ATTAR. And this mysticism has attracted the MOLANA in such a way, that he expresses his idea about ATTAR in MASNAVI as such:
ATTAR has seen all seven cities of love,
We are still wondering in an alley.
According to some quotes, MOLANA in childhood has met ATTAR in his old age, and ATTAR has given him, one of his important books by name of ASRAR NAMEH (letter of secrets).
there are quotes about this professional master and JAMI has mentioned both the cases in book of NAFAHATOL ENS as such: he was disciple of MAJDOLDIN BAGHDADI, therefore he was from KABRUYEH dynasty and the other is he was not having a specific master and was part of OVEISIAN, who are finding the path through the power of spirituality and love and don’t need the path master.
JAMI writes about internal evolution of ATTAR:
One day a dervish approached the apothecary shop of ATTAR and asked something, but master did not pay attention. Then dervish asked the ATTAR: how you will die? And the master replied: just like you. And dervish again asked: can you? And master said: yes. Dervish had a wooden bowl, kept it under his head and said: God. And instantly died. This incident caused an internal evolution in ATTAR.
he has many works such as: a letter about God, letter of secrets, gem article, king`s letter, disaster issue, hearth description, a bureau of odes and quatrains, MOKHTAR`s letter (collection of his quatrains) and finally the logic of birds book. The said book is one of the masterpieces of world literature.
Probably, ATTAR was martyred during Mongols invasion in 618 AH. Mongols destroyed the city and killed every one. But JAMI was written the date of 627 as death date of ATTAR.

4-SHAHABOLDIN ABU HAFZ OMAR SOHREVARDI (date of death: 632):

He was disciple of his own uncle, ABOLNAJIB ABDOLGHADER SHHREVARDI, and also, he was trained by Sufi ABDOLGHADER GILANI. He was supreme master in his own time in Iraq. And many persons were sending mystical and religious questions to him to get the proper answers. He wrote many books. His famous book is gnostic encyclopedia. This book is one of trusty and famous books of mystics. Martyr master MOTAHARI, writes about him and says: SHEIKH SAADI SHIRAZI and KAMALODIN ESMAIL ESFAHANI the great poet, were his disciples. SAADI wrote about him:
My great wise master, gave me two advices on the water,
The first one is don’t be pride, and the second one is don’t be pessimistic in the society.
SOHREVARDI was born in 539 AH and died in 632 AH.

5-ABUHAFZ OMAR BEN FAREZ MESRI (death: 632):

He is one of the great Islamic mystics. He is having great adventures.
Most of his spiritual conquests and revelations has been happened by guidance through an unknown old man in Mecca. Himself, says: I was in penance and struggle for long time, but there was no victory for me, and my heart was not opening toward almighty God. After sometime, I met an unknown mystic. He made me to realize that, my spiritual conquest will be in Mecca, so I moved there to get what I wanted.
IBN FAREZ, has nothing in prose, and all of his works are in poetry. And two odes of his works by name: KHOMRIYEH and TAIYEH has unique luster, among researchers. And many persons have written some descriptions on his poems. Martyr MOTAHARI says: his mystical poems in Arabic are comparable with mystical poems of HAFIZ in Persian. MOHIYOLDIN ARABI told him to write descriptions on his poems. In reply, IBN FAREZ said: your Mecca conquests book is the description for my poems.

6-SHIKH OHADOLDIN HAMED KERMANI (death: 635 AH):

He was disciple of SHIEKH ROKNOLDIN SANJASI.
KERMANI, just like AHMAD GHAZALI and FAKHROLDIN ARAGHI, was searching for the right in feeling faces and his unique beauty in beauty appearances of humans, and they are calling their own group as witness player. One day SHAMS TABRIZI asked KERMANI: what are you doing? He replied: I am looking at moon in the tub. If you want to do the right thing, why you are looking at sky, directly? that means, why you are searching on the ground and through earth sights, you are searching about sky`s values. Rise your head and look at the right. When some fellows, remembered the name of OHADOLDIN in front of SOHREVARDI, who was a great religious master, he said: he is heretic. When KERMANI, heard this sentence about himself, said: although, master calls me heretic, but it is my pleasure that he called my name. After this reply, SOHREVARDI, praised his reaction. KERMANI died in 635 AH.

/J

 

 

نسخه چاپی