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Location of women in Quran

Woman in Islam have exalted position and Quran has paid special attention to it. Since this topic is extended, the discussion in this area will be about the following topics:
Location of women in Quran
Location of women in Quran

 

Translator: Zahra. Kalaa
Source: rasekhoon.net







 

Woman in Islam have exalted position and Quran has paid special attention to it. Since this topic is extended, the discussion in this area will be about the following topics:
1. Analysis of nature and spirit of women;
2. Analysis of her rights;
3. Duties that are left to women.
These are considered as the main titles of our discussion. There are also other things that will be discussed.

1. Analysis of nature and spirit of women

Islam appeared when women did not have any values in Arab and other civilizations and philosophical searches in Rome and Greece were based on this pivot that women were from animals or from middle gender, human and animals. When a woman gave birth to a girl, her husband considered it as bad luck and his face turned black and it seemed disgrace to him in spite of the fact that it was hidden from relatives. God states
''وَإِذَا بُشِّرَ أَحَدُهُم بِالْأُنثَىٰ ظَلَّ وَجْهُهُ مُسْوَدًّا وَهُوَ كَظِيمٌ''
''When news is brought to one of them, of (the birth of) a female (child), his face darkens, and he is filled with inward grief''.
''يَتَوَارَىٰ مِنَ الْقَوْمِ مِن سُوءِ مَا بُشِّرَ بِهِ ۚ أَيُمْسِكُهُ عَلَىٰ هُونٍ أَمْ يَدُسُّهُ فِي التُّرَابِ ۗ أَلَا سَاءَ مَا يَحْكُمُونَ''
''With shame does he hide himself from his people, because of the bad news he has had! Shall he retain it on (sufferance and) contempt, or bury it in the dust? Ah! what an evil (choice) they decide on''.
Therefore, since men were ignorant about greatness of women, they had to bury their living daughters and to kill them and they imagined that they did good actions as Quran states
''وَإِذَا النُّفُوسُ زُوِّجَتْ''
''When the souls are sorted out, (being joined, like with like)''.
''وَإِذَا الْمَوْءُودَةُ سُئِلَتْ''
''When the female (infant), buried alive, is questioned''.
We see such arrogant thoughts in the depth of the ocean. Quran describes women as half nature of humanity in this way
''وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِي آدَمَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنَاهُم مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَىٰ كَثِيرٍ مِّمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيلًا''
''We have honoured the sons of Adam; provided them with transport on land and sea; given them for sustenance things good and pure; and conferred on them special favours, above a great part of our creation''.
Women like men established foundation of the society. On the other hand, Quran considers an equal creation with men for women and women are not created from men. In contrast with Turat Book that states '' women are born from Adam'', Quran abolishes this though in Turat Book and states
''يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ إِنَّا خَلَقْنَاكُم مِّن ذَكَرٍ وَأُنثَىٰ وَجَعَلْنَاكُمْ شُعُوبًا وَقَبَائِلَ لِتَعَارَفُوا ۚ إِنَّ أَكْرَمَكُمْ عِندَ اللَّهِ أَتْقَاكُمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ''
''O mankind! We created you from a single (pair) of a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that ye may know each other (not that ye may despise (each other). Verily the most honoured of you in the sight of Allah is (he who is) the most righteous of you. And Allah has full knowledge and is well acquainted (with all things)''.
It can be concluded that both women and men are complete persons and there is no question about humanity of women and separation between women and men is not based on any right foundations.
Favor of God includes persons, has considered them as the best creatures and has established the moon and the sun under control of human. This greatness does not devote only men, but it includes all children of God as Quran states
'' وَلَقَدْ كَرَّمْنَا بَنِي آدَمَ وَحَمَلْنَاهُمْ فِي الْبَرِّ وَالْبَحْرِ وَرَزَقْنَاهُم مِّنَ الطَّيِّبَاتِ وَفَضَّلْنَاهُمْ عَلَىٰ كَثِيرٍ مِّمَّنْ خَلَقْنَا تَفْضِيلًا''
''We have honoured the sons of Adam; provided them with transport on land and sea; given them for sustenance things good and pure; and conferred on them special favours, above a great part of our creation''.
Such comprehensive greatness considers women and men in an equal level. Therefore, if men or women do good actions, they will be equal against exalted God and will receive equal reward;
''مَنْ عَمِلَ صَالِحًا مِّن ذَكَرٍ أَوْ أُنثَىٰ وَهُوَ مُؤْمِنٌ فَلَنُحْيِيَنَّهُ حَيَاةً طَيِّبَةً ۖ وَلَنَجْزِيَنَّهُمْ أَجْرَهُم بِأَحْسَنِ مَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ''
''Whoever works righteousness, man or woman, and has Faith, verily, to him will We give a new Life, a life that is good and pure and We will bestow on such their reward according to the best of their actions''.
One of things that elucidates point of view of Quran about women creation is that Quran has considered position of women the same as position of men and it has considered killing both of them same as killing all of people;
'' مِنْ أَجْلِ ذَٰلِكَ كَتَبْنَا عَلَىٰ بَنِي إِسْرَائِيلَ أَنَّهُ مَن قَتَلَ نَفْسًا بِغَيْرِ نَفْسٍ أَوْ فَسَادٍ فِي الْأَرْضِ فَكَأَنَّمَا قَتَلَ النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا وَمَنْ أَحْيَاهَا فَكَأَنَّمَا أَحْيَا النَّاسَ جَمِيعًا ۚ وَلَقَدْ جَاءَتْهُمْ رُسُلُنَا بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ ثُمَّ إِنَّ كَثِيرًا مِّنْهُم بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فِي الْأَرْضِ لَمُسْرِفُونَ''
''On that account: We ordained for the Children of Israel that if any one slew a person - unless it be for murder or for spreading mischief in the land - it would be as if he slew the whole people: and if any one saved a life, it would be as if he saved the life of the whole people. Then although there came to them Our messengers with clear signs, yet, even after that, many of them continued to commit excesses in the land''.
Therefore, killing men is the same as killing women in God and if a person kills one of them, it seems that he or she has killed all of people. Can we imagine greatness that is higher than this?
One of things that shows that Islam looks at both women and men in an equal level is that it considers some rules for sentence of soul without considering male gender;
'' وَكَتَبْنَا عَلَيْهِمْ فِيهَا أَنَّ النَّفْسَ بِالنَّفْسِ وَالْعَيْنَ بِالْعَيْنِ وَالْأَنفَ بِالْأَنفِ وَالْأُذُنَ بِالْأُذُنِ وَالسِّنَّ بِالسِّنِّ وَالْجُرُوحَ قِصَاصٌ ۚ فَمَن تَصَدَّقَ بِهِ فَهُوَ كَفَّارَةٌ لَّهُ ۚ وَمَن لَّمْ يَحْكُم بِمَا أَنزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ''
''We ordained therein for them: "Life for life, eye for eye, nose or nose, ear for ear, tooth for tooth, and wounds equal for equal." But if any one remits the retaliation by way of charity, it is an act of atonement for himself. And if any fail to judge by (the light of) what Allah hath revealed, they are (No better than) wrong-doers''.
Immaculate God considers a person that does not issue decree according to this rule as tyrant persons and says
''وَمَن لَمْ یَحْكُم بِمَا أَنْزَلَ اللّهُ فَأُولئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ''
The prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) considers blood of Muslims in an equal level and describes obligation of all persons in an equal way;
'' المسلمون تتکافأ دماؤهم، و یَسعی بذمتهم أدناهم، و هم ید علی من سواهم''
Therefore, women and men have equality and cooperation in sheltering a polytheist. Cooperation of women and men in punishment is different from their cooperation in blood money because norm in punishment is different from norm in blood money and if a person murders another person, he or she will be punished.
However, norm in determination of blood money is to determine material losses that are imposed on family. Certainly, pressure on family due to lack of guardianship is more than lack of presence of women. In spite of the fact that absence of both woman and man have equal plight, blood money of a woman is half of blood money of a man and this does not mean that they different humanity.
According to mental and spiritual affairs of women and men, it should be said that clear difference between women and men is that women have exciting emotion that is full of pity, kindness and softness and they have sensitive spirit. The creator has established this emotion in inner of women that is in line with their responsibilities such as fostering children that is along with difficulties and this cannot be done by men. However, men do not have such exciting emotions because they have been created for other duties that need grimness and they are in line with responsibilities that are left to them. Hence, if emotions are along with grimness and intensity, the life will become cheerful and beautiful.

2. Analysis of rights of women in Quran

Women have extended rights in Islam and jurisprudents have discussed about them in their books in special chapters and some of them will be mentioned.
Quran descended when women were deprived of their rights even right of their inheritance and their properties were given to others as heritage. In such a situation, God stated
''لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ وَلِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا تَرَكَ الْوَالِدَانِ وَالْأَقْرَبُونَ مِمَّا قَلَّ مِنْهُ أَوْ كَثُرَ ۚ نَصِيبًا مَّفْرُوضًا''
''From what is left by parents and those nearest related there is a share for men and a share for women, whether the property be small or large,-a determinate''.
Therefore, women can inherit in some cases in an equal amount with women, in some cases, in less equal amount and in other cases, in more amount; it depended on adopted prudence.
It is not real that share of women in inheritance is less than share of men. But it should be said that share of women is variable. If inheritance is from parents, share of men in inheritance is two times more than share of women in inheritance and if inheritance is children, father and mother will inherit equal level as Quran states
'' يُوصِيكُمُ اللَّهُ فِي أَوْلَادِكُمْ ۖ لِلذَّكَرِ مِثْلُ حَظِّ الْأُنثَيَيْنِ ۚ فَإِن كُنَّ نِسَاءً فَوْقَ اثْنَتَيْنِ فَلَهُنَّ ثُلُثَا مَا تَرَكَ ۖ وَإِن كَانَتْ وَاحِدَةً فَلَهَا النِّصْفُ ۚ وَلِأَبَوَيْهِ لِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ مِمَّا تَرَكَ إِن كَانَ لَهُ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُ وَلَدٌ وَوَرِثَهُ أَبَوَاهُ فَلِأُمِّهِ الثُّلُثُ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُ إِخْوَةٌ فَلِأُمِّهِ السُّدُسُ ۚ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِي بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۗ آبَاؤُكُمْ وَأَبْنَاؤُكُمْ لَا تَدْرُونَ أَيُّهُمْ أَقْرَبُ لَكُمْ نَفْعًا ۚ فَرِيضَةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا''
''Allah (thus) directs you as regards your Children´s (Inheritance): to the male, a portion equal to that of two females: if only daughters, two or more, their share is two-thirds of the inheritance; if only one, her share is a half. For parents, a sixth share of the inheritance to each, if the deceased left children; if no children, and the parents are the (only) heirs, the mother has a third; if the deceased Left brothers (or sisters) the mother has a sixth. (The distribution in all cases (´s) after the payment of legacies and debts. Ye know not whether your parents or your children are nearest to you in benefit. These are settled portions ordained by Allah; and Allah is All-knowing, Al-wise''.
''يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمُ الَّذِي خَلَقَكُم مِّن نَّفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ وَخَلَقَ مِنْهَا زَوْجَهَا وَبَثَّ مِنْهُمَا رِجَالًا كَثِيرًا وَنِسَاءً ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي تَسَاءَلُونَ بِهِ وَالْأَرْحَامَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلَيْكُمْ رَقِيبًا''
''O mankind! Reverence your Guardian-Lord, who created you from a single person, created, of like nature, His mate, and from them twain scattered (like seeds) countless men and women;- reverence Allah, through whom ye demand your mutual (rights), and (reverence) the wombs (That bore you): for Allah ever watches over you''.
If a woman dies and her husband and children remain alive, her daughter will inherit half of inheritance and her husband will inherit its one-fourth. Hence, in this cases, right of women in inheritance is two times more than men as God states
''وَلَكُمْ نِصْفُ مَا تَرَكَ أَزْوَاجُكُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّهُنَّ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَهُنَّ وَلَدٌ فَلَكُمُ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْنَ ۚ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصِينَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۚ وَلَهُنَّ الرُّبُعُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُمْ إِن لَّمْ يَكُن لَّكُمْ وَلَدٌ ۚ فَإِن كَانَ لَكُمْ وَلَدٌ فَلَهُنَّ الثُّمُنُ مِمَّا تَرَكْتُم ۚ مِّن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ تُوصُونَ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ ۗ وَإِن كَانَ رَجُلٌ يُورَثُ كَلَالَةً أَوِ امْرَأَةٌ وَلَهُ أَخٌ أَوْ أُخْتٌ فَلِكُلِّ وَاحِدٍ مِّنْهُمَا السُّدُسُ ۚ فَإِن كَانُوا أَكْثَرَ مِن ذَٰلِكَ فَهُمْ شُرَكَاءُ فِي الثُّلُثِ ۚ مِن بَعْدِ وَصِيَّةٍ يُوصَىٰ بِهَا أَوْ دَيْنٍ غَيْرَ مُضَارٍّ ۚ وَصِيَّةً مِّنَ اللَّهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَلِيمٌ''
''In what your wives leave, your share is a half, if they leave no child; but if they leave a child, ye get a fourth; after payment of legacies and debts. In what ye leave, their share is a fourth, if ye leave no child; but if ye leave a child, they get an eighth; after payment of legacies and debts. If the man or woman whose inheritance is in question, has left neither ascendants nor descendants, but has left a brother or a sister, each one of the two gets a sixth; but if more than two, they share in a third; after payment of legacies and debts; so that no loss is caused (to any one). Thus is it ordained by Allah; and Allah is All-knowing, Most Forbearing''.
Difference in share of inheritance follows norms whose result is two closer titles and responsibility is infaq. If a person takes responsibility of infaq, his or her share will be more in inheritance. One of rights of women is financial freedom of women and the west has not achieved it so far as God states
''وَلَا تَتَمَنَّوْا مَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بِهِ بَعْضَكُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۚ لِّلرِّجَالِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبُوا ۖ وَلِلنِّسَاءِ نَصِيبٌ مِّمَّا اكْتَسَبْنَ ۚ وَاسْأَلُوا اللَّهَ مِن فَضْلِهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا''
''And in no wise covet those things in which Allah Hath bestowed His gifts More freely on some of you than on others: To men is allotted what they earn, and to women what they earn: But ask Allah of His bounty. For Allah hath full knowledge of all things''.
Marriage portion is a gift from a man to a woman and it has high effect on revitalizing of personality of women and survival of marital relationship. Hence, if a man gets married according to a specific marriage portion, he should pay whatever he has granted. God states
''وَآتُوا النِّسَاءَ صَدُقَاتِهِنَّ نِحْلَةً ۚ فَإِن طِبْنَ لَكُمْ عَن شَيْءٍ مِّنْهُ نَفْسًا فَكُلُوهُ هَنِيئًا مَّرِيئًا''
''And give the women (on marriage) their dower as a free gift; but if they, of their own good pleasure, remit any part of it to you, Take it and enjoy it with right good cheer''.
If a women ignores her marriage portion, a man is allowed to take it back.

God convicts a man that behaves harshly so that she ignores her marriage portion and states
''يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا يَحِلُّ لَكُمْ أَن تَرِثُوا النِّسَاءَ كَرْهًا ۖ وَلَا تَعْضُلُوهُنَّ لِتَذْهَبُوا بِبَعْضِ مَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ إِلَّا أَن يَأْتِينَ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُّبَيِّنَةٍ ۚ وَعَاشِرُوهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ فَإِن كَرِهْتُمُوهُنَّ فَعَسَىٰ أَن تَكْرَهُوا شَيْئًا وَيَجْعَلَ اللَّهُ فِيهِ خَيْرًا كَثِيرًا''
''O ye who believe! Ye are forbidden to inherit women against their will. Nor should ye treat them with harshness, that ye may Take away part of the dower ye have given them,-except where they have been guilty of open lewdness; on the contrary live with them on a footing of kindness and equity. If ye take a dislike to them it may be that ye dislike a thing, and Allah brings about through it a great deal of good''.
Quran also emphasizes that if a man gives his wife a lot of properties, he cannot take it back from his wife;
''وَإِنْ أَرَدتُّمُ اسْتِبْدَالَ زَوْجٍ مَّكَانَ زَوْجٍ وَآتَيْتُمْ إِحْدَاهُنَّ قِنطَارًا فَلَا تَأْخُذُوا مِنْهُ شَيْئًا ۚ أَتَأْخُذُونَهُ بُهْتَانًا وَإِثْمًا مُّبِينًا''
''But if ye decide to take one wife in place of another, even if ye had given the latter a whole treasure for dower, Take not the least bit of it back: Would ye take it by slander and manifest wrong''.

3. Duties left to women

Condition of survival of a society is cooperation among persons. If there is not cooperation in the society, the society will disintegrate. Family is a small society and the basic part of a large society. Hence, life of family can be done with cooperation of public. In fact, cooperation includes that all persons have rights toward each other as Quran has expressed clearly and completely
''وَالْمُطَلَّقَاتُ يَتَرَبَّصْنَ بِأَنفُسِهِنَّ ثَلَاثَةَ قُرُوءٍ ۚ وَلَا يَحِلُّ لَهُنَّ أَن يَكْتُمْنَ مَا خَلَقَ اللَّهُ فِي أَرْحَامِهِنَّ إِن كُنَّ يُؤْمِنَّ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۚ وَبُعُولَتُهُنَّ أَحَقُّ بِرَدِّهِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ إِنْ أَرَادُوا إِصْلَاحًا ۚ وَلَهُنَّ مِثْلُ الَّذِي عَلَيْهِنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ وَلِلرِّجَالِ عَلَيْهِنَّ دَرَجَةٌ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ''
''Divorced women shall wait concerning themselves for three monthly periods. Nor is it lawful for them to hide what Allah Hath created in their wombs, if they have faith in Allah and the Last Day. And their husbands have the better right to take them back in that period, if they wish for reconciliation. And women shall have rights similar to the rights against them, according to what is equitable; but men have a degree (of advantage) over them. And Allah is Exalted in Power, Wise''.
Meaning of the above verse turns out through Islamic family. Therefore, responsibility of a woman is to take care of children and this is not an easy job and no one except mother whose heart beats kindly cannot take care of this responsibility.
A person that imagines that role of training can replace with role of mother has made a mistake and is not aware of negative effects of this action on soul of children.
Men have also some rights in order to meet necessary needs of the life and whatever is related to perfection of women;
''وَالْوَالِدَاتُ يُرْضِعْنَ أَوْلَادَهُنَّ حَوْلَيْنِ كَامِلَيْنِ ۖ لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَن يُتِمَّ الرَّضَاعَةَ ۚ وَعَلَى الْمَوْلُودِ لَهُ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۚ لَا تُكَلَّفُ نَفْسٌ إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ لَا تُضَارَّ وَالِدَةٌ بِوَلَدِهَا وَلَا مَوْلُودٌ لَّهُ بِوَلَدِهِ ۚ وَعَلَى الْوَارِثِ مِثْلُ ذَٰلِكَ ۗ فَإِنْ أَرَادَا فِصَالًا عَن تَرَاضٍ مِّنْهُمَا وَتَشَاوُرٍ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِمَا ۗ وَإِنْ أَرَدتُّمْ أَن تَسْتَرْضِعُوا أَوهْلَادَكُمْ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ إِذَا سَلَّمْتُم مَّا آتَيْتُم بِالْمَعْرُوفِ ۗ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَاعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ''
''The mothers shall give such to their offspring for two whole years, if the father desires to complete the term. But he shall bear the cost of their food and clothing on equitable terms. No soul shall have a burden laid on it greater than it can bear. No mother shall be Treated unfairly on account of her child. Nor father on account of his child, an heir shall be chargeable in the same way. If they both decide on weaning, by mutual consent, and after due consultation, there is no blame on them. If ye decide on a foster-mother for your offspring, there is no blame on you, provided ye pay (the mother) what ye offered, on equitable terms. But fear Allah and know that Allah sees well what ye do''.
Quran also refers to responsibility of men;
'' وَعَلَى الْمَوْلُودِ لَهُ رِزْقُهُنَّ وَكِسْوَتُهُنَّ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ لاَ تُكَلَّفُ نَفْسٌ إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا
'' The father of a child should provide basic food and garments of mother. Persons should fulfill obligation within their ability''.
Therefore, if couples try to establish foundation of a family, a woman will be partner of her husband and a man will be partner of his wife. Then they will have clean and comfortable life.
What was expressed was features of a woman in Quran and there are more matters to be discussed especially about cultural, social and political freedom from point of view of Quran that has been discussed in recent decades. But there are several points to be discussed:

Equality with justice

The west mentions equality between a women and a man and its purpose is that both of them enter the life so that they can take responsibility of all affairs.
This is something that the west suggests. Therefore, a woman has to cooperate to a man in the battlefields, policy, leadership, work and use. The west does not consider special area for women and on the behalf of equality, it leads both of them to a way.
However, Quran suggests justice between men and women and disagrees with equality between them because equality may be in contrast with justice and a person that claims equality has denied spiritual and natural distinctions between two genders and has dealt with them as if they are persons whose natural desires have been taken from them and will have no ability for doing affairs that have been left to them.
This important topic needs explanation and justification so that natural point of view can become clear. Equality of persons does not mean equality in all areas, forces, instincts and spirits as two genders of male and female seem to be same and do not have any differences except appearance and only tongue of a person expresses such a thing, but his or her wisdom denies it.
Definitely, there are natural distinctions between men and women. Natural distinctions refer to their creation. Therefore, foundation of their differences is in area of responsibilities and rules.
Islam has considered nature and creation of women only norm of legislation and legislation according to nature has moved forward step to step during centuries. This is considered as permanent secret of Islamic Religion. But legislation enacts rules for women and men equally without considering nature.

Several doubts and several answers

''الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ ۚ فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَاللَّاتِي تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَاهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا''
''Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has given the one more (strength) than the other, and because they support them from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and guard in (the husband´s) absence what Allah would have them guard. As to those women on whose part ye fear disloyalty and ill-conduct, admonish them (first), (Next), refuse to share their beds, (And last) beat them (lightly); but if they return to obedience, seek not against them Means (of annoyance): For Allah is Most High, great (above you all)''.
God has left affairs of house to men rather than women because house organization depends on two implemented affairs within men that women are deprived of :
a. Force and ability of tolerance of problems;
b. Making money and meeting financial needs.
In most of cases, the first cases is seen in men more and Islam has made it necessary for men to run financial affairs of family. Hence, a man should shoulder burden of problems in order to organize affairs of family.
God has referred to organization of affairs of family that is considered as duties of men;
'' الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ ۚ فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَاللَّاتِي تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَاهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا''
''Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has given the one more (strength) than the other, and because they support them from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and guard in (the husband´s) absence what Allah would have them guard. As to those women on whose part ye fear disloyalty and ill-conduct, admonish them (first), (Next), refuse to share their beds, (And last) beat them (lightly); but if they return to obedience, seek not against them Means (of annoyance): For Allah is Most High, great (above you all)''.
The purpose of the above verse is not superiority in God and scale of closeness to God, but superiority of men toward women is intended from aspect of tolerance against problems that cannot be denied and if a person denies it, he or she has denied it verbally.
The second affair is obligation that God has left to men; therefore, they organize affairs of family.

2. Polygamy

Polygamy causes that women hurt emotionally and this is in contrast with equality between men and women. These two points should be clear about this matter. There is no question that a man avoids marrying again and this leads to preservation of marital relationships.
However, a man may face to conditions that he has to marry again and this is not undeniable. For example, when a woman is sick for a long time and cannot give birth and is barren, or a man resides in a far place for a long time, the man can marry again. If possibility of marrying again is not for men in such conditions, there will only two ways for men: 1. they subdue their lust and limit their cheerfulness and activity; 2. they may tend sexual corruption and prostitution. When these two ways are limited for them, inevitably men have women marry them and form family and accept responsibility of both women equally. In such conditions, Islam has recommended men to polygamy. God states in Quran
''وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا تُقْسِطُوا فِي الْيَتَامَىٰ فَانكِحُوا مَا طَابَ لَكُم مِّنَ النِّسَاءِ مَثْنَىٰ وَثُلَاثَ وَرُبَاعَ ۖ فَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ أَلَّا تَعْدِلُوا فَوَاحِدَةً أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَدْنَىٰ أَلَّا تَعُولُوا''
''If ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly with the orphans, Marry women of your choice, Two or three or four; but if ye fear that ye shall not be able to deal justly (with them), then only one, or (a captive) that your right hands possess, that will be more suitable, to prevent you from doing injustice''.
It is natural that a woman becomes hurt because her husband has married another woman, but this hurting is easier and more tolerable than deviation of men and disintegration of family.
Family system is in disintegration in the west because men are not faithful to their wives and have sexual intercourse with other women. This leads to lack of emotional relationship among couples and disintegration of legal relationships.
If women are allowed to have several husbands same as men, pillar of ancestry breaks, family system disintegrates, different diseases are created and society changes to a place for incest and sexual corruption. Therefore, Islam accepts polygamy, but it rejects that women have several husbands.

3. Hitting women in time of disobedience

One of doubts about rights of women in Islam is that a man is allowed his wife if a women does not come back him with advice. Quran states
''الرِّجَالُ قَوَّامُونَ عَلَى النِّسَاءِ بِمَا فَضَّلَ اللَّهُ بَعْضَهُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ وَبِمَا أَنفَقُوا مِنْ أَمْوَالِهِمْ ۚ فَالصَّالِحَاتُ قَانِتَاتٌ حَافِظَاتٌ لِّلْغَيْبِ بِمَا حَفِظَ اللَّهُ ۚ وَاللَّاتِي تَخَافُونَ نُشُوزَهُنَّ فَعِظُوهُنَّ وَاهْجُرُوهُنَّ فِي الْمَضَاجِعِ وَاضْرِبُوهُنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ أَطَعْنَكُمْ فَلَا تَبْغُوا عَلَيْهِنَّ سَبِيلًا ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كَانَ عَلِيًّا كَبِيرًا''
''''Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has given the one more (strength) than the other, and because they support them from their means. Therefore the righteous women are devoutly obedient, and guard in (the husband´s) absence what Allah would have them guard. As to those women on whose part ye fear disloyalty and ill-conduct, admonish them (first), (Next), refuse to share their beds, (And last) beat them (lightly); but if they return to obedience, seek not against them Means (of annoyance): For Allah is Most High, great (above you all)''.
Reality of this doubt is lack of deep thought about content of the verse and its purpose. The verse talks about a woman that has disobeyed her husband and has violated rights of her husband in spite of the fact that her husband has not violated her rights and has insulted humanity of her husband. When a woman disobeys her husband although her husband has advised her and in nest stage he has separated his bed from her, a man has to punish his wife mildly so that a woman avoids disobedience.
Therefore, it is not clear that the verse is not about a woman that has been tyrannized by her husband and she has defended herself in order to her right and greatness, but the verse is about a woman that the man has considered all rights of his wife, but she has violated all rights of her husband and has disobeyed her husband.
Second, its purpose from hitting is not hitting that is hard and bloody, but its purpose is hitting that scares the woman and it causes that she avoids disobedience. Imam Baqer (peace be upon him) has interpreted the word '' hitting'' in the verse as hitting with stick of brush.
Hitting rarely happens if the first two solutions are not effective. If it is necessary that a woman is hit by her husband, it should not be severe and its purpose is to make her afraid so that she avoids disobedience.
Imam Baqer (peace be upon him) narrates from the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) that he said '' do you hit your wife and then you hold her?''

Imam Ali Ibn Abi Taleb states

''و لا تُمَلِّکْ المرأةَ من أمرها ما جاوزَ نفسَها، فإنّ المرأةَ ریحانةٌ و لیست بقهرمانةٍ''
'' Leave responsibilities to your wives that they can do them because a woman is a flower not a champion''.
Therefore, a woman should be behaved in a way that she is an odorous plan rather than a champion. Women should be asked things that a weak creature such as red flower of the spring is asked.

/J

 

 

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Wednesday, October 7, 2015
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