City of Babol is located in the central part of Mazandaran province and in the old state of Tabarestan. From east to the cities of Gaem (formerly Shahi) and Savadkuh, from west to the city of Amol and from the south to the city of Damavand (district of Firoozkooh) has been limited and from the north the city of Babol Sahr separate it from the Caspian sea. City of Babol includes the central districts (suburbs), Western Bandpei and Eastern Bandpei and also consists of ten villages. Its cities are Amir Kela and Babol (town center). Alborz Mountains are along it; its highest peak is about 392 heights, and Naregeli is about 3, 282 meters height. Its rural areas located in the plains and mountain (forest). Bandpei in terms of being mountainous, rainforests and grasslands are regarded as resort famous areas of Mazandaran as well. So, Rivers of Babol and Talar irrigate the lands of this city. Its major products include rice, cotton, wheat, oilseeds, sugarcane, tobacco, hemp and vegetables. Citrus groves, peach, plum and its broad bean is also well known. Most of its products are exported to Tehran and other cities moreover, livestock and hunting ducks are also common. Formerly local fabrics known as Milk Cheese are woven that is exported to Tehran and other cities. It has several rural weekly market and main roads of Gaem City to Amol and Babolsar passing from this land. Babol through Ghaem shahr joins the Trans-Iranian Railway. However, from its Balkan of old settlements (including both top and bottom) are located in the 5 or 12 kilometers southwest of the city of Babol. The residence of Babol talking to Mazandaranian accent and the population of Babol at the time of Naser Al Din Shah including its village districts recorded as 60 thousand people.
According to state divisionary rules in 1997 Babol identified as district in Sarri city. In 1943 the district of Babol changed into city and district of Babol Sahr and some other districts joined to it. In August of 1996 district of Babol Sahr separated from that and changed into town.
The river of Babol is flooding in Mazandaran Province; its ancient name has been Bavol and it streams from Savad Kouh and Bandpei in the south of Babol. This river by south-northern direction after irrigation of arable land of Bandpei and passing through villages along the west Balatajan County passes the west of Babol city and enters into town of Babolsar and after irrigating the southern villages of this town in city of Babolsar pours into Caspian Sea. Of its tributaries is Kelarud that comes from the highlands of Bandpei and after watering the basic arable land Sasi and village of Laleh Abad in a southern suburb of the city of Babol joins Babol.
For the first time in four century Hodod Al –Alam was the name of this river that is recorded as Baval and according to it river of Baval streams from Qaren Mountains and pours into Caspian Sea. However, the bridge of Mohammad Khan in 1168 in 100 meter long and 6 meter width, 8 meter height including 8 streams has been built. This bridge at the time of the Nazarene have has ten streams.
In the estuaries of Babol, in Babolsar have some fisheries where fish of caviar and white fish (grilled fish) caught. City of Babol located in 225 km from northeastern of Tehran and on the right of Babol River. City of Babolsar is located in twenty kilometer of its north and Amol in 33 kilometer of its west. Its height is two meters above sea level. Sometimes the hottest temperatures in July and the coldest temperature in February is 41 to in 1,5 degrees respectively. Babol has weekly rural markets, such as Thursday market and Friday market, as well. Its distance to Gaem City, in its southeast is twenty kilometers. Average annual population growth of Babol in 1876 -1986, replicated in geographical area has been equal to 4, 778 moreover; this city has several colleges affiliated to the University of Mazandaran. Based on the history of earthquakes in Iran, in 1220 a harsh earthquake devastated the central Mosque of Babol and in the solar date of 1314 also a harsh earthquake struck the city of Babol and followed with great damages. Also, due to this earthquake riots broke out in the city that leads to army intervention. Also in 1336 an earthquake devastated the mountainous regions and the city of Babylon also damaged.