Translator: Zahra Zamanloo
Habib Levy, a Jewish historian, whose book is full of false and baseless data on Iranians̓ oppression on the Jews, his approach toward Abraham is very biased and in favor of the sheriff and describes Lotf Ali Khan and Karim Khan Zand as an ugly face. For example, he claims that "Lotf Ali Khan in Isfahan and Shiraz kidnapped thirteen Jewish girls and took them to his masque."
Doctor Abdul Hussein Navayi, the contemporary historians, judges as follows:
This Lotf Ali Khan is the same minister of Lotf Ali Khan Zand and Khan trusted him to fight with Aqa Mohammad Khan but he betrayed his commander and closed the doors of Shiraz and did not allow Lotf Ali Khan enter the city and sent him to the desert. Etemad o Dole made a covenant with Agha Mohammad Khan and gave Shiraz to him, and the wife and children of former benefactor to his bloodthirsty enemy and for this wickedness achieved the ministry position, and employed all his brothers and relatives. Mirza Ibrahim was somehow a pilferer and Agha Mohammad Khan, who love money, has understood this, and he was hard watching him and he also looked him permanently and occasionally tell about this to him... with all this since both wily foxes knew that the establishment of their governments is dependent to each other, they were both afraid and needed to each other's help. Until the reign of Fath Ali Shah who was weaker than that can be cooked with a roguish man as Mirza Ibrahim Khan. He writes:
In the conversation between the author of papers and Haji Ibrahim occurred it is mentioned that Haji always said one of his main objectives was to be free from the damages of wars that were done over the reign and no one care who is on the reign either a Qajari or a Zandi except a small army of thieves and con, but all were demanding that Iran remains big and strong and calm.
As we see, here to justify the ascent of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar the same theory has been used that would justify the base of the ascent of Pahlavi dictatorship.
Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar granted Haji Ibrahim sheriff the title of "Khani" and appointed him as the Byglrbygy of Fars. Later, in the early years of 1209Q. / 1794M. Ibrahim Khan was called as "Etemad o Dole" and took place at the seat of the Ministry of the founder of the Qajar monarchy. Ibrahim Khan Etemad o Dole was the only Minister of Agha Mohammad Khan Qajar for four years and then he was Fath Ali Shah's powerful chancellor for four years. Throughout the eight years he was the second person of the Iranian government and divided many senior level positions of government among his family members and their dependents.
Thus, in the fateful years of climb and Napoleon Bonaparte's authority in the West and the conflict of Tipu Sultan and Zaman Shah Afghan with the dominance of Great Britain in the East, in fact, the Iranian government̓ s affairs was in the hands of Ibrahim Khan Etemad o Dole and other members of the Qavam family. However, after completing the mission of Mahdi Khan and Captain John Malcolm in Iran, suddenly Ibrahim Khan was banned by Fath Ali Shah Qajar and in the first of 1215Q. / April 15, 1801 AD., his family was massacred on the orders of the king. Ibrahim Khan has been blinded and his tongue was cut and he was exiled with his family to Qazvin and then Taleghan and he was killed there. Many of his relatives had the same fate.
The decline of Qavam family was temporary. A decade later, in 1226Q. / 1811M., at a time when relations between Iran and Great Britain have been recovered and the French delegation left Iran, Fath Ali Shah once again cared for them, and the survivors of Haji Ibrahim Khan were appointed in high positions of government. Including, Mirza Ali Akbar Khan (1203-1282Q.), the fourth son of Ibrahim Khan, who became the Persian Byglrbygy at this year. At 1245Q year, he was known as Qavam ol Molk, and since then this title was hereditary in the family. Qavam ol Molk at the five years of his life served at (Mashhad).
The family of Qavam Shirazi at all times, up to the Islamic Revolution (1357 Sb.), was one of the most powerful and richest families ruling in Iran. Their power base was in the city of Shiraz and they had vast estate throughout Persian Gulf and other parts of Iran. They headed five States of Fars (Arab, Baseri, Baharloo, Enaloo and Nafar), that was created since Ali Mohammad Khan Qavam al Molk, son of Qavam al Molk First, during the competence with large tribe of Qashqai (1278Q. / 1861M.). He gave them a big military and political power at the time of World War I that had a benefit for the colonial Great Britain. The fifth and last of the dynasty, who was nicknamed Qavam al Molk is Ibrahim Qavam (1268-1348Sh) who was the most influential figure in the Pahlavi era. He is the father in law of Amir Alam.
The role of Ibrahim Khan Etemad o Dole (Qavam Shirazi) in the eight-year transition period of his ministry and specially his bond with the Jewish oligarchs and the East India Company of Great Britain in Iran and the region has not been discussed. In the Persian sources that have been published with the claim of disclosure of colonial administrators of Great Britain in Iran during the Pahlavi era tried to hide or totally kept secret the role of this family or trying to show a positive figure of Ibrahim Khan Etemad o Dole and his successors. For example, Ismail Raeini is completely silent about Qavam family and this is despite the fact that his book on "the payroll of the British in Iran," begins with the biography of Mirza Abol Hassan Khan Shirazi (legate), the nephew and son of Ibrahim Khan Etemad o Dole, due to full recognition of the family to a mysterious foreign relations, especially with Great Britain, this approach appears unusual. We see the strangest encounter by Mahmoud, a historian who has been known as a radical against the English.
Mahmoud describes Ibrahim Khan Etemad o Dole as "servant of Iran" and the first victim of Britain's colonial policy in Iran. He claims that Ibrahim Khan prevented Mehdi Ali Khan for the realization of evidence that Iran's military invasion against Afghanistan, and for this reason he was deposed and murdered. Mahmoud then wrote a brilliant letter in defense of the Qavam family and describes Ibrahim Khan and his successors as good families. Mahmoud even claims that the treaty concluded between John Malcolm and Abraham Qavam is "the first and last treaty" which has considered the inalienable right of Iran. Notoriety and mysterious links of Qavam family is not something that is hidden for a historian such as Mahmoud and therefor his defend from Ibrahim Khan and his family should be in complete contradiction with the anti-English positions. Indeed, why a historian who is considered as some of the authors of the original "Anglophobia" (fear of English) and "conspiracy theory" in Iranian contemporary historiography ought to give judgment about a well-known and notorious family as the Qavam Shirazi!
Earlier, in the description of the story of missions of Mehdi Ali Khan and Sir John Malcolm, we have explained the performance of Ibrahim Khan Etemad o Dole for the benefit of the colonial Great Britain. We should add that since before the arrival of Lord Wellesley’s agents to Iran, the foreign policy of Ibrahim Qavam was clearly in favor of Great Britain's colonial oligarchy. Etemad o Saltaneh explains that at the time of the murder of Agha Mohammad Khan and before his nephew Baba khan (Fath Ali Shah) placed in the seat of the monarchy, the French ambassador came to Iran and called for unity with the Iranian government against Russia. (At this time, Russia was united with England against France.) "Haji Ibrahim Khan, the Chancellor returned the French ambassador with his perfunctory answer." Etemad o Saltaneh assumed Ibrahim Khan Etemad o Dole is not aware of the incident to the account of "State politics". We do not think so.
This negative behavior of Ibrahim Khan was due to the demand of France government and it was a clever and political act that later was continued through the political and commercial treaties with the east Indian Company and put Iran as one of the allies of Britain. Ibrahim Khan, the chancellor had an important role in the successful achievement of John Malcolm in his mission. The first political and commercial treaties of John Malcolm and the Iranian government (S. 1215Q. / Jan 1801M.) is Signed by Ibrahim Khan. The review of the treaty's provisions proved the invalidity of the claim of Mahmoud. According to Article II of the Treaty between Malcolm- Qavam, the Iranian government pledged that "every Afghan community decided to go to India ... he will take an army against them." And in accordance with Article V, the Iranian government pledged that "the people of France should be prevented by the Iranian border either sea or land-stop location and empty their burden." Such obligations would not benefit the people of Iran and the region.
The claim of Mahmoud about the causes of Ibrahim Khan̓ s murder is baseless. Etemad o Saltaneh reports the reason of his murder due to his ‘’evilness and corruption’’ and also his much cruelty on people and he believes that these cruel behaviors are due to the pressure of people on Qajar. The pressure was so intense that if Fath Ali Shah Qajar did not care it, his monarchy would be destroyed.
[These pressure were continued until finally, few papers have been brought to the king that explained Haji Ibrahim Khan has made a treaty with a large congregation, and his determination and intent is treason.
By removing the risk of Tipu Sultan and Zaman Shah of Afghanistan, Richard and Arthur Wellesley began a vast invasion to expand their colony in East India Company in the Indian subcontinent. Arthur Wellesley in recognition of his services reached the rank of Major General in April 1802. Now the Mahratta have been considered as disruptive and detrimental forces to regional security and it was necessity to provide them with the company's direct rule. The invasion on them was commanded by General Wellesley in December 1803 and led to the failure of Mahratta and imposed them to accept the Modular treaties. For this reason, the sign of "knight Commander of the Bath" was awarded to Arthur Wellesley and House of Commons thanked him. In 1805, the mission of Richard and Arthur Wellesley in India was ended and they returned to England.
After returning of Richard Wellesley to London, the board of the East India Company in recognition of his services in India awarded him 20 thousand pounds sterling cash bonuses and the his statue was raised in London and Calcutta. In 1809, during the war of France and England in the Iberian Peninsula, he was sent to Spain as the Extraordinary Ambassador and this is at a time when his brother, Arthur, was the British commander in the region. A little later in the same year, due to "the desire of George III" (a euphemism of George Emerson) he became the Minister of Foreign Affairs of Great Britain and up to 1812 he was in this position. Then, for a while he was the representative of Ireland. Wellesley until his death was one of the most influential political figures of Britain and his position was so high in Great Britain that British men called him "the Great Proconsul". Lord Wellesley’s correspondence and notes were published in the years 1836-1837.