Translated by: Ahmad Ismaeil Abadi
The meaning of life in the transcendental school
Anthropology in the wisdom of Sadra is based on the primacy of existence. However, as far as, Mullah Sadra observed his reality by Physical science and found it real and not by essence. The anthropology of Sadraee is not apart from his ontology and the reality of human is nothing but the existence. The man is nothing but a source of blessings, so what is source of blessing in the man is his existence. The existence is one, but has various stages that like light contain all the essence and as far as all the perfect features are like the essence so; the more the essence is powerful and intense, the higher perfect features will be. As absolute essences have knowledge and good will, unity and happiness, joy and absolute peace, so, the benefit of the existence hierarchy is determined after the pure and holy existence of the Self-existent. Therefore, inevitably, every creature that can increase its existence, surely, its happiness, joy, peace and science will be increased. According to Mullah Sadra the creatures specially the man are like belonging to God and connection to the origin and not belonging and related so, there is no independence and inherent stability , the identity has no independence but all of them are glittered by the God's eternal light. In other word, based on the existence of the caused, the human also his being is under the light of the self-existent and his identity is nothing other than this relation. Of course , the existence of the intervention in the material word due to higher distance of the absolute being have more instability in other universe. Mullah Sadra uses the assimilation of mirror shapes; that is the creatures are like mirrors which show the picture and the picture of God. However, men are mirror that must or perhaps to be shown it means their value is nothing but the shade of God and the photo of photographer. In the transcendental knowledge, based on philosophical foundation of Mullah Sadra, which is existentialism and graded unity, the existence is being proven that has awareness of life perfection, but they are the same as existence. So like existence in all particles of the universe they are flooding. Even inanimate objects in their rank are alive and conscious. Any creature as much as its existence has consciousness and life so, the reason for lack of perfect presence of wisdom and life among the material creatures is that they have a week presence. According to Mulla Sadra, the existence of physical beings is a grantee of lack of their presence under the cover. Therefore, their presence is achieved by backbiting and their survival is maintained by modernity and decadence and their remaining by renewal is kept. So the existence of physical material can not have continuous awareness, eternal life and fixed willing. In material things because of the degree of consciousness life, the meaning of life exists, but the higher the existence is and distances the material possessions , this way of recognition and the life increases and understanding toward life also develops; it means that the meaning of life also gets deeper. So, this meaning, in the man, the more transcends, the more will increase.
Mulla Sadra defines love as much enthusiasm toward unity and the lover and defines it equal to existence. However, he considers the origin of life as the goodness of the beloved and says that any good being that is gentle and lenient for him, considers good and if not having it feels the attraction toward it. Therefore, for God , because he is the source of any absolute power is excited to His being and His love toward His own is regarded of the perfect ones. Love toward the features is either in the context of love to the Almighty and because the entire world is as a manifestation of His unique being s, God loves the entire universe. He, as discusses in the unity of the lover and beloved also debates on the unity of the lover and the beloved, as well. He also considers the foreign beloved by accident, and the obtained picture of the beloved as the real and united beloved with the lover that is the same as love. According to Mulla Sadra's thoughts, inside of all creatures of the world and inside all particles in the nature, love of perfection have been endowed with and love to get to eternal happiness is current all the parts of the universe. Love in all beings that are gifted with and have power of love, naturally or intentionally are enthusiasm and desire to move toward the beloved. Therefore, this passion and love is sensual movement and physical love toward the sources. Therefore, this effort and enthusiasm in all particles in the universe emanates from the love of absolute perfection, and if it was not such a love, the creatures with feelings will be silent and inactive. The effort and enthusiasm of all particles in the universe emanates from the love of absolute perfection.
In humans, the meaning of life depends on getting the love and development in its path so, according to Sadraee's substantial move, the motion and gestures are the same outside, that the same existence is ephemeral and fluid. However, Mullah Sadra consider the move nothing more than a continuous renewal and modernization of the world in each moment and in its philosophical system, comes to the conclusion that the essence of the universe and protest, is always on the move . Mulla move as nothing more than a continuous renewal and modernization of the world does not know at any moment and in his philosophical system, comes to the conclusion that the essence of the universe and accidents as a result, always on the move. However, counterfeiting movement is also forgery move as well. Hence, the evolutionary development in human exists and the movement of human is a sort of essence. Self –discovery in transcendental philosophy is very important and even its theology is in the light of his self-discovery. Understanding the origin, attributes and actions is a ladder for development that without a degree to travel it, it is not possible to achieve divine knowledge and also in recognition of the Resurrection and its aspects is the key to open that without its help it will not be possible to get familiar with Resurrection . Thus, achievement of life-meaning is mainly achieved by self-discovery and the self.
According to Sadrol- Motalehin, belief is one of the most important foundations of life; he believes that belief is a reasonable light that the human is getting perfect by power and fault and develops from the world of darkness and objects to the world of souls and lights. Mullah Sadra states that the believing facts are not achieved unless by getting from the light of prophesy and internal praying from velayat. Therefore; everyone who is after it, should pure out the world's affection and purifies his heart and distances from people toward God and avoids of all the world's lusts. So the meaning of life, according to Mulla Sadra, is got in the light of faith, and by resorting to faith is got far richer and richer. Mullah Sadra unlike Ibn Sina, who considered the Union of the sane and insane unreasonable and irrational, accepted it and adduced much evidences. Because of sane and sensible reason, if you could understand the caused, wise and rational soul gem is his very essence, the essence of the rational soul is wise, then he built a reasonable correlation to the rule, must be ordered at the same time that it is wise so, its reasonable based on the rule of weaknesses should be in the same level where the Wiseman is there and vice versa , so, the Wiseman is just as the reason . Mullah Sadra considers the reason weakness in other perceptions also fixed and does not regard them special to reason; it means that in illusory perception and Imaginative and sensory alliance with evidence also exist. Accordingly, the meaning of life is not merely a perception and cognitive knowledge, but what understood as the meaning of life is, despite the perceiver is being united and becomes current in all of its existence. So, the gold of talking talent gives life to science and makes it a brighter light. The real science is what intertwined with his life and the meaning of life turns into real science when transfers from perception to the realized. From Mulla Sadra's view point, the benefit is both a blessing and pleasure, whether earthly or heavenly, and all creatures for God are either good or profit, benefit is the same happiness and joy that is desirable and essential and the end of happiness in the eternal survival is a science ended to ignorance and richness without poverty. . So, we can conclude that eternal happiness can not be reached except by entrance into heaven. The meaning of Excellency creation is that the material causal chain to be in a way that more creatures benefit more virtues and blessings. That is the laws governing on the world and mankind should be in a way that the most good and benefits are being obtained; it means that the rules of the world and human to be in a way that in it the most possible benefit and the least evil is being obtained. The best system is also provided for people to gain the greatest benefit is to achieve the highest level of happiness. The meaning of life is not nothing but a path to achieve prosperity and goodness. The aim of the man creation in religious texts is that the background for testing and free choice for human is provided and finally, the way is paved to achieve salvation and eternal happiness and this man is put at the level of closeness and pleasure of God. The hierarchy of the self from the viewpoints of Mulla Sadra is natural, plants, animalistic and humanistic that gradually along with material gained for people in the world. Dream is the first phase of the existence of the Hereafter and the last phase of the material world, because no object of the things of this world ranging from time, face and power can be transferred to the eternal world unless the dimensions of changing which occurs in them and the man is not susceptible to assembling. Because all her faculties like hearing, seeing, taste and are like rays of his existence stored scientifically and foreign fanciful before the dream. However, if these outside materials are wasted, these forms will be preserved such as the preservation of the soul at the same corrupted body. Islamic philosophers define the move of soul at four different stages; that is monster-based reason, angle-based reason, and practical-reason and implied. But according to the recommendations of Mulla Sadra, the nature of the soul of reason does not end with the acquired intellect because the acquired intellect and the fourth stage of the spiritual life of the soul, the union with the active intellect, or "spirit," or the Holy Spirit that the mystics call it the expanded existence. The human soul with union to this active intellect or the same Holy Spirit and adaptation of light and knowledge turns into a holy soul. Because the divine beauty is absolute and endless, as well as it love attraction and other self-love even after reaching the celestial spirit and the divine spirit which has been interpreted is not being stopped and this celestial relationship has no end. So the meaning of life based on the goal of man's creation and its spiritual evolution finds a long and transcendental length and this life never stops, rest and is endless.