Translator: Zahra Zamanloo
Author: Abdollah Shahbazi
"Holy Alliance" that was formed in war against Napoleon was short-lived and in the early 1820s, the conflict of interests of the oligarchy in London and the government of Great Britain with former allies, and in its head, Russia and Austria, became apparent.
This new arrangement divided political forces of Europe in to two sides of "reactionary" and "liberal". Oligarchic plutocracy of London, and as a result, the British government was on top of a second front and due to his effective role in the events of this time was known as a defender of "independence" and "liberal" political forces in Greece, Italy, Hungary, Spain, and South America. However, exactly at the same time, oligarchic plutocracy based in Great Britain was with vehemently in the development of their empire in the East.
1820s coincided with the era of ruler Francis Lord Hastings (1813-1823) and Lord William Amherst (1823-1828) in India. This years are known as the period of English and American companies and heightened activity and a significant increase in opium trafficking and export of this very profitable good to China. In 1820 approximately four million boxes opium were exported to China and in 1830 this amount reached to twenty thousand Fund. In 1820 there were about 260 thousand opium addicts in China and in 1830 this number reached to more than one million.
Thus, this English "freedom" should be known only as a cover for a large and powerful attack of plutocracy of London invading the territory of rival powers, powers that now were considered as "old Europe". In addition to Russia and the Ottoman, Habsburg, Austria, France and Spain, bourbon also belonged to this "old order", respectively.
Usually, foreign minister’s period of George Canning in England (1822-1827), from the party of "lace", is considered as the beginning of this split; a "liberal" personality that is considered a reactionary "antithesis" Metternich “in the history of Europe.
From this time London supported the independence of Italy and separated his way from Vienna and chose an aggressive policy against the positions of the "reactionary of Europe". This policy manifested in the Iberian Peninsula as the support of "liberal" opposition and in South America with the support of the colonial oligarchs’ rebellion against the domination of Spain and Portugal.
The policy of London in Latin America had a full compliance with the oligarchs position that was stated in the "doctrine" of James Monroe, the President of United States of America (1817-1825): "America is for Americans!" note that Monroe in her famous speech at the Congress of the United States of America (December 1823) mentioned the Great Britain's navy as a powerful support for the realization of the policy of "Hands off South America Short".
Thus, in the decades of 1820 and 1830 and with the support of the United Kingdom and United States of America, it was established on the ruins of the colonial empires of Spain and Portugal, and the independent governments in Latin America, Venezuela, Brazil, Argentina, Colombia, Mexico, Bolivia, Chile, Ecuador, Paraguay and Peru. Canning calls this policy as an invitation from the "New World" to correct "old order" calls. His famous statement is: "I called the New World to amend the old order."
Canning has another famous statement in which the explicit goal of his policy is mentioned as "freeing” the Latin America. Several public correspondences are also available which clearly state the objectives of this policy. For example, British Sharzhdafr in Brazil wrote a letter and stated the goal of London in supporting the independence of the American colonies of Spain and Portugal to turn them into "quasi colonies of Great Britain".
And that is why that after the establishment of "The New World" of Mr. Canning, a flood of "English" capital came to this area and in 1850, Great Britain and South America turned into a major trading partners. Cayenne and Hopkins estimated the assets of "English" in Latin America, equivalent to 81 million pounds in 1865 and in 1913 this assess reached to 180/1 billion pounds. This figure is equal to 25% of total assets of overseas based on the British plutocracy at this time.
George Canning (1770-1827) belongs to an unknown family whose history is not known.
Rollo, the author of his biography in his too complimentary article in the Encyclopedia of Americana, claiming that he "was born in poverty." However, He continues that Canning finished his education at Eton College and Christ Church, Oxford High School, the highest aristocratic British schools and colleges with "the expense of his grandfather." Alan Palmer, the uncle of George Canning, has introduced the father of Sir Stratford Canning, as a "merchant of London". Royston Pike knows the Canning family ancestor an English man, who has immigrated to the area of Ulster (Ireland) in the early seventeenth century.
However, the first known person of this family is named Stratford Canning that lived in Ireland around half of the eighteenth century and he was a "rough and tough" man. He has three sons. The largest of them, who lived in London and worked in the wine trade, is the father of George Canning.
George Canning lost his father when he was a child and his mother, who was an actress, was married several times. Thus, Canning was raised from the age of eight by his uncle. According to Pike, after graduating, in 1792, he wrote a letter seeking a meeting with British Prime Minister William Pitt, and the prime minister of England accepted him in a "friendly way" in the House. Since then, Canning became a great fan of Pete.
This "unprecedented" and "romantic" acquaintance is not acceptable. Undoubtedly, there were family links between related parties of Pete and Canning family that accepted the 22-year old Canning such warm. A little later (July 1793) Canning with the support of William Pitt became a member of parliament. This is the beginning of a rapid improvement of Canning in the pyramid of British government. In 1796, William Pitt appointed the 26-year old Canning at the Assistant Secretary of State and he was in office for three years.
In 1800, Canning married the daughter of Major-General John Scott and earned one hundred thousand pounds of her fortune. Canning’s marriage connected him to the great circles of aristocratic of England because his sister in law was the wife of the heir of Duke Portland, one of the leaders of the "Tory Party" and the British Prime Minister (1783, 1807-1809), respectively.
Canning in the new government of William Pitt (1804), became the Treasurer of the Navy and in the years of 1807 to 1809 he was the secretary of Duke Portland.
In the course of his minister, with the continuation of the deceased William Pitt, he was the passionate and restless fan of the war with Napoleon and one of the staunchest supporters of the appointment of Arthur Wellesley (Wellington) on the commander of British forces in the Iberian Peninsula. During this period his work was on conflict and duel with Lord Kastlryg (1769-1822), the Secretary of War and the next Secretary of State, and it led to a long step down from the Cabinet and the collapse of his political credibility.
Seven years later (1816-1821) Canning was appointed as the president of "supervisory board" on Indian Affairs. This is the institution that would become "minister of India".
According to Pike, Canning was an "ardent reactionary" in "liberal" foreign policy and in the internal politics and he strongly supported the repressive measures of Lord Liverpool against the people of Great Britain and Ireland. Nevertheless, he was the defender of Greece rebels against Ottoman rule and South American rebels against Spanish rule, and he used this policy to the extent that everyone calls him as a "savior of Greece and South America". Canning was the Prime Minister of England for 100 days before his death.
George Canning was the father of Earl Charles John Canning (1812-1862), the Viceroy of India (29 February 1856 to 18 March 1862) in the aftermath of the Crimean War and the regent queen / king of England in India.
The Lord Canning is the one who declared war to Iran in November 1856M. / 1273Q zero. He send James Avtram to Bushehr and created something by Lord Cowley (Sir Henry Wellesley), nephew of Richard Wellesley and Wellington, in Paris that was settled in favor of England.
The internal war of US and the unprecedented boom of India cotton market occurred during the rule of Canning.
At the end of his ruler, his wife, the daughter of Lord Stewart Rvtsay, died in India and he died due to illness shortly after his return to England.
Possibly Gen. John Scott, the father of George Canning’s wife and the grandfather of Lord Canning of India, belongs to the famous family of Scott, one of the famous agents of East India Company.
In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, we know several political and military officials in the ranks of the company in India that some of them came to the rank of general. Jonathan Scott (1754-1829), the prominent Orientalist of East India Company is from this family. In 1778 he was the secretary of the Persian Warren Hastings, and at the same time he was one of the founders of the "Asiatic Society of Bengal". In 1785 he returned to England and continued the Oriental studies and teaching oriental languages in college of Hylybvry. One of his works is the translation of angel history (on Deccan) and thousand and One Nights.
George Canning authority in England and start of his active scrambling enabled him to gain the collapse of the "old order", exactly coincided with the beginning of domination of doctor Knighton on George IV, sick King of England, and the advent of "Jewish and doctor" in the history of the UK that we have already spoken about it.
Plutocracy Oligarchic of Great Britain needed this change to use the huge capital that was accumulated over two centuries by looting overseas. Thus, a feverish wave covered politics, economics and culture of England. As the English experts were scrambling to write a constitution for new independent governments in Latin America, and along with the effort of English missionaries to convert "pagans" of the land to devout Protestants, and torrential wave of capital flowed into the South American mines. According to Eugene Corte, at the end of 1824, feverish attempts took the London Stock Exchange. Companies were abundant and millions of pounds flow. Almost all major institutions in London contributed to this effort.
The soup was so hot that burns his cook’s mouth. Financial boom of 1824 caused the massive crisis of 1825.
The decade of 1820 is known as the era of the proliferation of "secret organization" in Europe, and the strange thing is that these organizations were created all in the lands that were under the invasions of London-based oligarchy, including: Greece, Italy and southern France, Spain, South America and Ottoman.
The secret conspirator vehemently sought the collapse of "old order" within these countries. Some of the most important of these organizations, which has played an effective role in the restructuring of the nineteenth century Europe, are "Karbvnary", "Mafia" and "Camorra".
Consultants from Lord Byron, English, Marquis Lafayette and Louis Bonaparte, French, and Italian Giuseppe Mazzini as a leading member of the "Karbvnary" mentioned.
George Gordon Byron, sixth Baron Byron (1788-1824), English poet, belongs to a family from 1643 that holds the title of "Baron". Today, Robert James Byron is the thirteenth Byron of this house, living in London, and he is the partner of "Holman Fenwick" company, and living in the Lloyd streets.
Father of George Byron is Captain Jack, known as "Mad Jack", his fortune were earned through overseas adventure and Byron ended his education at Aristocracy School of Harrow.