Translator: Davood Salehan
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries Jews court functions are summarized as follows:
1. BankingCourt Jews were the source of supplying liquidity needed by European courts. We have explained bout this relationship and great loans and investments of Jewish plutocracy.
2. Tax contractingIn many cases Court Jews had the same function as achieve today government agencies have such as the Ministry of Finance. Raising taxes, especially agricultural taxes from small and large courts' nationals of Central Europe was the responsibility of the Jewish oligarchs. They usually bought the tax from before and of course tried in gathering it to grasp the most profit. We have expressed numerous examples, such as the Popper family in Bohemia.
3. MilitaryAccording to historians of the Hebrew University of Jerusalem, primary function of court Jews was providing logistics and sievers of military. Jewish military contractors were present everywhere along with armies of German, from small armies of local court to the massive army of the emperor of Germany (since 1871).
Jewish plutocracy military operation should be divided into three parts:
in addition to supplying logistics, they were responsible for the function of preparing and equipping small mercenary armies (military slaves) from nationals' rulers of Central Europe for granting to customers, such as the Netherlands and Britain colonial oligarchy. This function also continued during the Napoleonic Wars. Procurement of military equipment (especially horses, guns and gunpowder) was also quite a Jewish professional.
We became familiar earlier to the instances of this function in Christian Spain, the Iranian Safavid-Ottoman wars and then in Poland. It is no coincidence that the city of Brno, an important center of Jewish oligarchs scrambling in East Europe, became the site of the military industry in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. Brno gun is a well-known name in Iran. We will learn about important military complex of Rothschild later in this area, and we will recognize Jewish plutocracy deep ties with the West arms industry in the twentieth century.
4. CoinageOne of the functions of the court Jews was coinage. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, most of Germany court coins were made of silver. With the increase in economic activity during this period, the above metal got rare and supplying silver needed for coinage became one of the important tasks of Jewish oligarchs.
5. Supplying consumption and decorative / luxury needsOne of the important functions of court Jews was supplying jewels and precious stones for Europe courts. This function of Jews had other dimensions as well that is not mentioned in historical sources. But as we will see clearly in analysis of the relationship of Jewish plutocracy of the nineteenth century with the Europe rulers and nobility, supplying the needs of the luxury life of the families, especially in the sexual aspects was of the important functions of Jewish plutocracy.
6. Diplomatic and intelligence activitiesJewish Encyclopedia states that Maranos were employed as diplomats by local governments very soon due to their extensive international links. Note that the "diplomacy" and "information" function is not much different. If there have been Jews/Maranos who acted as "diplomat", of course, there were Jews / Maranos that were considered to be "information brokers". We have seen that the performance of Jews espionage during the thirty Years War in Europe is confirmed by reference above.
All these functions caused increasingly link and correlation of Jewish plutocracy and oligarchy of central Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. Gradually, this association extends beyond participation and led to the creation of an intricate network of kinship, and thus it built the political structure of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries of the West on a clan-based foundation. The Jewish Encyclopedia suggests kinship links of Marranos / Jews with central Europe's aristocratic families and their active presence in the aristocracy ranks of some European and American countries. It writes: "aristocracy of some communities in Europe and America became rich by Marranos and their descendants."
In this process, German oligarchs' clans achieved a great wealth and in the seventeenth century, they were in the first place in politics and economics of the continents of Europe and America. House of Naso / Orange took over Netherlands and Luxembourg governments. William III, of this family was the British monarchy by the help of the two million gold coins of Baron Antonio Suaso Lopez. In the late seventeenth century, Frederick Augustus, Duke of Saxony, came to the throne of Poland by help of Jewish Behrand Lehmann, his court's political and financial consulter, and oligarchs of Hanover and Saxony became royal British family and then Belgium. Because of this link, the House of Hesse was considered as richest royal family of Europe into an oligarchy since the beginning of the nineteenth century until World War II. This is the most prominent examples of the "Faostos" and "Mofistofles" that Sombart has pointed out. These developments are placed on the basis of the development of contemporary cosmopolitan plutocracy oligarchy.
One of small German rulers, who began active lucrative participation with Jewish plutocracy, is Christoph Bernhard von Galen. He ruled from 1650.
Gallen attracted Jews' attention to his expansionist overseas business applications and became a partner with Jewish plutocracy families of Gompers, Levi, and Isaac. Other small German rulers adopted the same policy as well. As a result, in the second half of the seventeenth century, military contractors and influential court Jews such as Israel Aaron and José Liebman in Prussia, Lefman Beharndez in Hanover and Behrand Lehmann in Halbershtat, and Aron Bear in Frankfurt achieved a great wealth. Liebman was so rich that gave loan to the Habsburg royal family and local governments of Germany.
There was in the same situation in Duchy of Holstein:
since 1683, Jacob Mosafia was Financial Brokerage and chief of Mint of the court Holstein. After his death, his son, Joseph, succeeded him. Forests (Samuel, Jeremiah and Israel Forest) were also of court Jews Holstein and did their financial operations in partnership with Bendix Goldeshmit and family of Hindershizen living in Hamburg. Later, Goldeshmit was Financial Brokerage of the court of Denmark. In the first half of the nineteenth century, a member of the family Hinderyshezn, named Ruben came to serve Leopold II, Grandduk Tuscany (1824-1859).
Gompers family members also served Hohenzollern dynasty (King of Prussia) and along with Jewish families Isaac, Ephraim and Itzik took over the control of Prussian Mint.
Of the last Hohenzollern family members who had close ties to Jewish oligarchs, we can mention Frederick I, Grand Duke of Baden (1852-1907). He is uncle of Wilhelm II, Emperor of Germany. Frederick is known as sponsor of Theodore Herzl, founder of new Zionism. He was the one that set Herzl's meeting with Kaiser during a visit to Palestine (1898) and it was him that respectively strove in the development of Zionism in Tsarist Russia and succeeded to obtain a letter from Tsar as the evidence of supporting Zionism.
Of famous court Jews of the first half of the eighteenth century we shall note Marx Osur, Brokerage of all Sweden and Saxony courts, and Jonas Meyer. Meyer was great banker and usurer of city of Dresden. He was Behrnad Lehmann's brother-in-law and a relative of Lefman Behrandz. At this time, court of Saxony in Dresden had the largest number of Jews in the service of the court. Bear and Landau families were also famous Jewish families of this city. In the court of Brunswick, family of David had a prominent place, especially Alexander David.
This is a long story. Jewish Encyclopedia states that all German local governments had their own court Jews and generates a detailed list of their names. Of these, Heine family should be noted.
Solomon Heine (1766-1844) was born in Hanover. He was established in Hamburg and became one of the largest dealers of his time in the major port of trade. His heirs moved to Paris and staged one of the biggest financial institutions in the city. Heinrich (Haim) Heine (1797-1856), German famous poet and writer, is his nephew.