Translator: Davood Salehan
1. Separations and Vocals"In the revolutions basically the starting point is when irreparable gap is emerged between conservatives and those who are trying to create changes and thereby, it becomes apparent that we must overturn the existing regime and its power. In this case, a real picture of opponents are depicted in where all charges and all the enemies that he has created is crystallized and a specific terminology arises that by its help and through cartoons, and the songs and propaganda [slogans] attack opponent with humor... "
A kind of Shiite radicalism thinking that has its roots in the history of this religion on the one hand, and in the Forties and fifties decades it was promoted and introduced by modernist Muslim intellectuals and clerics on the other hand, led to formation of a political process that on the eve of the revolution did not have conservative slogans such as "enforcement of the constitution" or "the king should reign not government", and did not think about anything other than making fundamental changes. It was in such atmosphere that the revolution specific terminology was formed and specific songs and slogans were shouted in which there were not only humor and irony, but clearly the ruling regime and the Shah was attacked, such as "till king isn’t in shroud, this country will not be home "We say we do not want King, they change the Prime Minister, we say ...", "dark night of Iran will turn to the day, Khomeini eventually will be victorious," and etc. also, considerable exhibitions of drawings and caricatures were held in every place in the country especially carrying dummies of the king in demonstrations that depicted the most prominent regime's crimes and likening King to a criminal and blood-drinkers of the history, such as Zahhak, Yazid was, and so on.
Yes, on this common objective (overthrow the ruling regime) revolutionary forces joined together and achieved remarkable unity.
2. The unity and collective emotion"The revolution process has peak points as well. These peaks are moments where events are usually in some form of a union and collective emotion. The events are of the original actions or courageous behaviors that say about victory and changes. The event may be in the form of a war, or capturing a place or a strategic or symbolic building or execution of a character of the regime, and so on. The fundamental issue is that such an event once crystallizes and focuses fighting against the regime and the unity and strength of the revolutionary forces and the movement's goal and this is the same phenomenon that can be called "special moment or turning point of the revolution".
Special moments or milestones are not rare in the Islamic Republic of Iran, including the seventeenth of Shahrivar event and Ashura protests of August and September 1357. While in the seventh Shahrivar event included the harvest suppress of revolutionaries and the regime apparently wanted to show military power and devotion of the army to the revolutionaries, but it made the message of revolution more apparent and created a huge gap between the people and the regime and blocked any compromise with the regime. In two protests of Ashura and Tasua in 1357, general excitement and emotions of people reached its peak and this was also due to the political situation of that time and also due to the special status of these two days on the Shiite revolution. People attended in the streets in an unprecedented way and fields were ready for wider protests. Combination of mourning for Imam Hussein (Peace be upon him) with sharp political and revolutionary slogans linked present tense into the past tense.
But undoubtedly the most important and most decisive event that can unquestioning be called as "tipping point" in Islamic revolution of Iran is the arrival of Imam Khomeini in 12th Bahman 1357 from exile to Iran and giving the historical speech in Behesht Zahra in Tehran: "I determine a government. I will punch in the mouth of the government.... ".
3. Symbols"Symbolism plays a dominant role both in the formation of revolution and in formation of ideology of revolution. Revolution creates numerous symbols which can be used in denoting the loyal ones, putting pressure on the opposition, remembering the past, specifying a change etc...
Persons, places, dates and martyrs will have a symbolic feature, and with their help, we can convey a message and the disclosure of the current situation and future prospects and so on even it can be said that a part of the revolution is achieved with the help of symbolic behaviors, such as making institutions and organizations promising the establishment of a new order... "
The truth is that symbolism plays an important role in the development of the ideology of the Islamic Revolution and in the process of Islamic revolution as well. In the development of the ideology of the Islamic Revolution, Imam Hussein (PBUH) was as a revolutionary model for manifestation of the right and a symbol of Shiism above all. Revolutionary Shiites consider that every ground is Karbala and every day is Ashura and every month is Muharram". Shiite religion has never neglected policy in the history and has not been away from it. These features in two decades of 40s and 50s raised a growing number of Iranian intellectuals to have paid more attention to Shiism, and writings of the intellectuals also turned Shiite as a political ideology and "really" a revolutionary one”
Some of the elites of the Revolution were also sometimes as a symbol. In the Islamic Republic of Iran, "Imam Khomeini who was the only source of emulation among the revolution clergy and had a long history of struggle against the Shah's regime was as a symbol of the struggle against the Shah and his regime until mid-1356." Imam Khomeini was a manifestation of the revolution in the eyes of millions of Iranians among other revolutionaries; he was a saint with prophetic mission and words.
Chanting Allahu Akbar in the nights of revolution on the roofs was also an example of symbolic behavior. More obvious and more specific examples of symbolic behavior were taking down the pictures and statues of the king as a sign and symbol of the regime's fall and the end of its life.
Of creation of new institutions and organizations promising the establishment of the new system we can explicitly name formation of the Revolutionary Command Council of Imam Khomeini which was named as the interim government.
4. Extremists and moderates"In the consensus and unity in the revolution we can also find sharp differences... most significant difference and separation between the two groups may be the division between extremists and moderates. In all revolutions we always see the two groups against each other. Extremists resort to violent methods and moderates are fan of a gradual and step-by-step evolution. "
In the midst of the revolution, apart from the masses, there was a significant division among the revolutionary elites; the majority of the people, especially students and Tolabs were demanding full fight with the regime until its overthrow of the monarchy. The group, which can be called uncompromising group, applied the Imam Khomeini's methods (the kindness of God be upon him) but National Front leaders were in front of them that despite the association with Imam and the revolutionaries, demanded adoption of the way that was more moderate for achieving the goals of the revolution (eg, achieving the freedom, dissolution of SAVAK, lack of corruption, etc.). In the midst of the events, a number of National Front leaders, including Doctor Karim Sanjabi had meetings with the king and whisper of "King should rule accordance with the constitution not state" could be heard from every corner.
Imam Khomeini (the kindness of God be upon him), in a strongly worded speech on France's fought against these whispers:
Shall we say that you (the King) be Your Majesty and do not rule! What is the logic? How a man can speak like that? The meaning is that by the Constitution Sir Shah will be Sultan and not the ruler, is this even possible? Even animals cannot talk like that. If someone has a word in promoting this tyrant (King) he will be traitor to Islam and Muslims, no one bring the name of the constitution. "
But it should be acknowledged that the pan of extremists was so heavy that moderates did not endorse on their own way; for example accepting Prime Minister by Bakhtiar was not officially supported by the National Front.
5. Counter-Revolution"A revolution in the path of its continue will inevitably create counterrevolutionary group as well. counter-revolution may appear at the beginning of the revolution or before it and tries to replace a gradual change by the revolution, while counter-revolution fights against the symbols and revolutionary subjective perceptions by creating symbols and images of opposition, in a way that it makes imminent revolution seem dangerous and bloody and will consider the results as ominous ones and introduces revolutionaries by the name of "sabotage". In this case, Symbolism and counter-revolution diction is not weaker and less effective than Symbolism and diction of revolutionaries. It should not be assumed that the counter-revolution is exclusively including the presence rule because sometimes it happens that groups that have created a revolution look for inner counter-revolution divisions. In this case, the moderate wing begins hidden or apparent counter-revolution actions due to the fear that the extremists win the process of revolution. Also, there will be a possibility that a counter-revolution arise after a revolution and try to restore the situation in the former state."
In addition to the ruling regime which repeatedly introduced revolutionaries as subversive, militant, rebel, reactionary, communist and foreign agents, several other categories can be among counter-revolutionaries of the Islamic Revolution in Iran during the revolution.
1. King-fashioned and monarchists given the history of 2500 years of monarchy in Iran, the idea of monarchism and king worship had more or less some fans, but it could not exist in front of the opposite wave.
2. The so-called Hojatieh Society, which had supporters among the majority and minority of people. They were against the revolution and overthrow the government because they believed that hide in occultation is not permitted. We have to wait the advent of the Mahdi of God to overthrow oppressive government.
3. Moderates can be placed among the counter-revolutionaries from the direction that they wanted gradualism and reform and balanced change in order to achieve the goals of the revolution (not construction).
4. Since the Islamic Revolution of Iran had a purely ideological and religious nature, on the eve of the revolution and after the revolution, some revolutionary groups accuse each other as being against the revolution under the pretext of deviation from the goals of the revolution or the diversion of religious beliefs, or to round up opposition from the power (after passing the "establishment" or "revolution" into the "institution" or "system"). It is possible opponent who lives in the minority, lose in this war, and will later be literally in one of the counter-revolutionaries. An obvious example of this process can be seen in change process of PMOI from February 1357 to the present.