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28/12/1395 09:09:00 ق.ظ

Jews in Europe

Jews in Europe

Jews in Europe

 

Translator: Davood Salehan
Source: rasekhoon.net



 

Definition of Jew

Some commentators and specialists say that 'Jew' is derived from the word "hood". Moses (Peace be upon him and his progeny) took seventy men of the children of Israel Mighat. They were under the wrath for requesting to see God. Prophet Moses (peace be upon him) said: we will return to you and we will repent. But it does seem correct and "Jew" is derived from "Judas" (son of Jacob (Peace be upon him and his progeny)). We should not forget that today some Jews are descendants of Judah and others are the ones who had converted to Judaism, both Arabs and non-Arabs. Majma al-Bayan interpretation writes: they are called Jewish because descent of some of them ends up to the fourth son of Jacob (Peace be upon him and his progeny). Doctor Ahmed Shibli writes: Jews are descended from Judah son of Jacob.

Condition of Jew in Europe

Between the years 1808 to 1812, Jews in Germany and Prussia were accepted as citizens of these countries. The idea of restoring the Jews to Palestine and the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine was also mentioned for the first time at the peak of Napoleon's power. The main objective of Napoleon for the establishment of a Jewish state in Palestine was creation of a bridge over the East Mediterranean to implement the ambitious plan of campaign towards India. However, his mistake in military campaigns to Russia and loss of French military forces in this result less war provided arrangements for collapse of the Napoleon Emperor, and his next plans were dashed as well. After Napoleon's defeat harassment of Jews was resumed. Anti-Semitism was more intense in Germany than anywhere else, because the Germans accused Jews to cooperate with the forces of Napoleon and treason. The situation of the Jews in Russia and East Europe was not better than other Western Europe countries. Poland, which was the safest shelter for Jews from the early 16th century, was attacked by Russian troops in the second half of the 18th Century and was analyzed three times in the years 1772 to 1795 AD. By Russian dominance over most of Poland, Jews' destiny living in there was in hands of Russians and vast limitations were created for them. In the second half of the nineteenth century, more than 80% of the world's Jews lived in European countries, and their living conditions were improved so much in the middle of this century than in the past. In all periods of scattering of the Jewish people, they made independent organizations anywhere in the world that were established to rule their administer and religious affairs that the series of them was called "Qahyla". Qahyla's constitution and functions are as follows: a synagogue for words, beit Midrash to teach religious affairs, normal schools, Miqveh to wash and bathe. The appointment of public servants such as Raban, Diane, Hazan, Shuaht, teachers and monitor Keshrut (solubility) are of Qahyla's tasks. The duties and other functions of the Jewish people were headed by a selected community be chairmanship of Haqahan (head of the congregation). Its members are usually Jewish representatives of various religious and social organizations.

Jewish bourgeoisie

Since the late 16th century AD, Sephardic Jews (Eastern Jews) were expelled from Spain and Portugal and settled in the Netherlands and France and Ottoman countries. Because of their expertise in banking and with the benefit of good and close relations to the Ottoman Sephardic, they easily entered into the realm of world trade, and thus, they took the first step in the formation of the Jewish bourgeoisie. In the 18th century by improving the social, political, economic condition in Europe, the position of Jews was recovered, especially in the economic sphere. This led to more effort to get rid of the ghetto and integration into Western societies and turning to producing jobs and as a result, expansion and consolidation of the Jewish people and stabilization of Jewish bourgeoisie. Jewish bourgeoisie in various forms helped the emergence of Zionism that the most effective ones include: 1-Jewish bourgeoisie along with the growth and evolution of the West capitalist which knew the entire world as its consumer market. At this time, however, the Ottoman Empire suffered from a weak economy, the possibility of exploiting its domestic market was not possible, but the possibility was provided by the migration of Jews to a place which had Arabs cheap labor. In addition, such actions turned non-active Jews in economic and not interested in economic investing to the active ingredient in the Ottoman Empire and the remaining Jews in the West were also pushed to economic and profitable activities. Jewish capitalism rejected it due to avoiding increasing financial demand of poor Jews and reducing their wealth. Even this group took control of the Jewish state in Israel. Thus, the Jewish bourgeoisie had a major role both in driving the Jews out of Europe and in the management of them in occupied Palestine.
3. At the beginning, the Jewish bourgeoisie did not want immigration of Jews to Palestine, but by admit of Chaim Wiseman, Uganda plan was so intensely interesting for commercial that they believed that it is not important that the Jewish new homeland is ancestral or not . Even in the later stage, Jewish bourgeois was not looking for immigration of all Jews to Palestine, but it demanded that the number of Jews should be reduced to the extent that it would not harm the economic situation of them. Nahu Sakalu admits that Zionism has emerged not as a movement, but as a financial and capitalism action. Of course, finding a place to have fun, as well as re-controlling the Jews are of other objectives of Jewish bourgeoisie in the creation of the Zionist.

 

KeyWords :

Europe

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Israel

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Jewish people

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