Translator: Zahra. Kalaa
The messenger of God ( peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) announced the Imamate of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) formally in the presence of a lot of Muslims ( it has been said over a hundred thousand) in a region called Khadir Khom according to the order of God when he was coming back Haje Al-Veda. The messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) considered the guardianship Amir Al-Momenin like his guardianship over the Muslims and said clearly
ألست أولى بكم من أنفسكم ؟ قالوا : نعم ، قال : من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه .
Ali will be the master of every one that I am a superior master to his tact and possession.
It has been said in another interpretation
إن الله مولاي وأنا ولي كل مؤمن من كنت وليه فهذا وليه .
It has been said in the third interpretation
يا أيها الناس من أولى بكم من أنفسكم ؟ قالوا : الله ورسوله أعلم . قال : ألست أولى بكم من أنفسكم ؟ قالوا : بلى . قال : « من كنت مولاه فعلي مولاه » .
Saying such sentence
« ألست اولي بالمؤمنين»
The messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) wanted to remind them of this verse of the Quran
« النَّبِيُّ أَوْلَى بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ »
The prophet is more virtuous than the Muslims.
Making them confess, the prophet wanted to dictate this matter '' as I am more virtuous than everyone, Ali will have same rank''.
There is no doubt that the word '' Ola'' is priority in possession in this verse
« النَّبِيُّ أَوْلَى بالمؤمنين من أنفسهم »
However, there is doubt and fault for the Sunni scientists what document and reason proves that the word '' Ola'' is interpreted as superiority in possession and tact in the Khadir Sermon?
Another presented question is that the root of the used word '' Ola'' is in the Quran in this sermon and it has been said in this verse of the Quran
« النَّبِيُّ أَوْلَى بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ مِنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ »
Why do they say that this word has been interpreted as superiority in tact and possession? The word '' Ola'' as the meaning of superiority in tact and possession has no case because this Hadith has been used to punish and inform that I am more virtuous and superior than you in possession, but it does not mean superiority in the possession of others.
This word should be analyzed from the point of view of terminology and its use in interpretation. Especially, it should be searched and analyzed from the point of view of the Sunni interpreters so that the use of this word can be specified in the sermon of the prophet during the event of Khadir.
Was the formal announcement of superiority of Amir Al-Momenin (peace be upon him) in possession and tact as the meaning of the Tashrie of God (that is same guardianship of God) after the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) or the meaning of the formal announcement of this matter was that the affection and friendship that the Muslims had with the prophet have with Amir Al-Momenin?
The concept of the word '' Ola'':
The word '' Ola'' terminologically:
The word ''Ola'' has been derived from the word '' Al-Vali'' whose root is '' v-l-y''. The real meaning of the word '' Vali'' is that two things are beside things without distance. This meaning can be interpreted as closeness and vicinity.
Ragheb has said
«الولاء والتوالي أن يحصل شيئان فصاعداً حصولاً ليس بينهما ما ليس منهما، ويستعار ذلك للقرب من حيث المكان ومن حيث النسبة ومن حيث الدين ومن حيث الصداقة والنصرة والاعتقاد والولاية : النصرة . والولاية : تولى الأمر . و قيل : الولاية والولاية نحو الدلالة والدلالة . وحقيقته : تولى الامر » .
Al-Ragheb Al-Asfahani Al-Mofradat Fi Gharib Al-Quran, Ketab Al-Vav, v 533
When two things stick to each other and are beside each other and the third thing do not separate them from each other; the word '' Ola'' has got such meaning. This can be used metaphorically where there are close place, honesty and cooperation. The word '' Velayat'' with (v with ''a'') means help and the word '' Velayat '' with ( V with ''e'' ) means guardianship the real meaning of Velayay is guardianship.
Ibn Athir has written
الولاية تشعر بالتدبير والقدرة والفعل .
Guardianship demonstrates and refers to tactfulness, power enforcement and action performance.
Ibn Al-Athir, Al-Nahayat Fi Gharib Al-Hadith, v 5 p 227
Ibn Manzur has written
وولي المرأة الذي يلي عقد النكاح عليها ولا يدعها تستبد بعقد النكاح دونه .
The guardian of a woman is a person that had married her and woman cannot be left in this case so that others tyrannize him with marrying her.
Ibn Manzur, Lesan Al-Arab, v 15 p 407
Zeidi has written '' Al-Vali'' means supporter as one of names of God and it also means the guardian of affairs that are left to us. However, it means the owner of things.
«الولي في أسماء الله تعالى : هو الناصر ، وقيل : المتولي لأمور العالم القائم بهاوأيضاً الوالي : وهو مالك الأشياء جميعها المتصرف فيها
Muhammad Morteza Al-Hosseini Al-Zeidi, Taj Al-Aroos Min Javaher Al-Ghamus, v 20 p 315, Derasat Researched by:Ali Shiri, Tabaat Am
Farahidi has written
ولي : في أَسماء اللَّه تعالى : الوَليُّ هو الناصِرُ ، و قيل : الُمَتَوَلِّي لأُمور العالم و الخلائق القائمُ بها ، و من أَسمائه عز و جل : الوالي ، و هو مالِكُ الأَشياء جميعها المُتَصَرِّفُ فيها . قال ابن الأَثير : و كأَن الوِلاية تُشعر بالتَّدْبير و القُدرة و الفِعل ، و ما لم يجتمع ذلك فيها لم ينطلق عليه اسم الوالي . ابن سيدة : وَليَ الشيءَ و وَليَ عليه وِلايةً و وَلايةً ، و قيل : الوِلاية الخُطة كالإِمارة ، و الوَلايةُ المصدر . ابن السكيت : الوِلاية ، بالكسر ، السلطان ، و الوَلاية و الوِلاية النُّصرة .
The word '' Ola'' as one of names of God means supporter. Others said '' it also means the guardian of affairs that are left to us and the word '' Al-Vali'' is one of names of God and it means the owner of things. Ibn Athir has said '' guardianship demonstrates guardianship and it has power and performance''. When these affairs are not related to noun, Vali cannot be used. Ibn Kasit has said '' Velaye Be Kasr means guardianship and government and Velayat Be Fath means help.
Ketab Al-Ein, v 8 p 365
The writer of the book '' Majma Al-Bahrin'' has written
والولي : الوالي ، وكل من ولي أمر أحد فهو وليه . والولي هو الذي له النصرة و المعونة . والولي الذي يدير الأمر ، يقال : فلان ولي المرأة إذا كان يريد نكاحها . وولي الدم : من كان إليه المطالبة بالقود . والسلطان ولي أمر الرعية، ومنه قول الكميت في حق علي بن أبي طالب . ونعم ولي الأمر بعد وليه ومنتجع التقوى ونعم المقرب .
The word '' guardian'' means king and everyone that undertakes the affairs of someone else will be considered his guardian. Guardian is a person that helps and cooperates with others. Guardian is a person that finds solutions and organizes affairs. For example, when it is said that a person is the guardian of a person, in fact, he is going to marry her. The guardian of blood is said to a person that claims the retaliation of some one. King is the guardian of people. the remark Kamiat about Imam Ali ( peace be upon him) means such thing that he said '' you are the best guardian and you are also the best improvement drug and you make things near each other.
Majma Al-Bahrein, v 1 p 455
Conclusion: according to what was said about the words '' Ola'' and '' Vali'' in the point of view of the interpretation of linguists, this can be understood that this word means kingdom and guardianship.
The meaning of the word '' Ola'' from the point of view of the interpreters:
The Sunni scientists and interpreters have interpreted and meant the verse
« النبي اولي باالمو منين من انفسهم»
In two ways: some of the Sunni interpreters have interpreted and meant it as affection and help and other Sunni interpreters have interpreted this verse as '' superiority in possession and tactfulness'' which some of them will be mentioned.
Shahab Al-Din Alusi (died in 1270 A.H.):
Alusi, the Sunni famous interpreter, has written as he has corrected that the meaning of the word '' Ola'' is that God has considered the guardianship of the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) greater and closer than their rank.
«النبى أولى بالمؤمنين» أي أحق وأقرب إليهم «مّنْ أَنفُسِهِمْ» أو أشد ولاية ونصرة ...
The prophet is more superior than the Muslims. In other words, he is more qualified and closer than people to their desires.
Al-Alusi, Abu Al-Thana Shahab Al-Din Mahmud Ibn Abdullah Al-Hosseini, 1217- 1270 Hejira, 1802- 1854, Ruh Al-Maani Fi Tafsir Al-Quran Al-Azim va Al-Sabaa Al-Masani, v 16 p 42
Baghvi Shafei (died in 510 A.H.)
He has written about the verse
« في نفوذ حكمه فيهم ، ووجوب طاعته عليهم ، وقال ابن عباس وعطاء : يعني إذا دعاهم النبي ودعتهم أنفسهم إلى شيء كانت طاعة النبي أولى بهم من أنفسهم .
It means the performance of rule and the necessity of obey by them. When the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) wants something from them, but they desire something else, obeying the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) is more deserved.
Abu Muhammad Al-Hossein Ben Masud Ben Muhammad Ben Al-Fora, Al-Baghavi Al-Shafei (died in 510 hejira), Maalem Al-Tanzil, v 3 p 507, Dar Tayebe Lelnashr va Al-Tozi, Forth, 1417 Hejira- 1997, Haghagha va Kharaj Ahadith Muhammad Abdullah Al-Nomar Osman Jome Zamiriye Soleiman Moslem Al-Harash
Ibn Kathir, narrating Khazen and Ebn Teimie, has written about the interpretation of Baghavi
من أجل المصنفات في علم التفسير وأعلاها ، وأنبلها وأسناها ، جامع للصحيح من الأقاويل ، عار عن الشبه والتصحيف والتبديل ، محلى بالأحاديث النبوية
It is one of the most important, famous and firmest interpretation that includes valid narrations without doubt, distortion and change and it has been decorated with the prophetic Hadiths.
Ibn Teimie has written about the position of the Baghavi interpretation in the book '' Osul Al-Tafsir''
والبغوي تفسيره مختصر من الثعلبي ، لكنه صان تفسيره عن الأحاديث الموضوعة والآراء المبتدعة .
The interpretation of Baghavi is shorter than the interpretation of Salabi, but it is lack of topic way and non-religious decoration.
Tafsir Ibn Kathir, v 1, p Al-Moghadamat 20
Muhammad Ben Ali Shokrani (died in 250 A.H.):
فإذا دعاهم النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم لشيء ودعتهم أنفسهم إلى غيره وجب عليهم أن يقدّموا ما دعاهم إليه ويؤخّروا ما دعتهم أنفسهم إليه، ويجب عليهم أن يطيعوه فوق طاعتهم لأنفسهم، ويقدّموا طاعته على ما تميل إليه أنفسهم وتطلبه خواطرهم.
Al-Shokani Muhammad Ben Ali (1173-1250 hejira, 1759- 1834), v 4 p 261, Published by: Alam Al-Kotob
Hence, if the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) wants something from them, but they desire something else, it is necessary for them to give priority to the order of the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) and it is necessary for them to consider obeying Hazrat Muhammad more superior than obeying their desires and to give priority to obeying him than their desires…