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Prophet Muhammad Said: "My Lord, command me to do my duties, as he command me to tolerate with people." The book Al-Kafi, vol. II, p. 117.
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28/12/1395 09:10:00 ق.ظ

Kinds of Education in Quran

Kinds of Education in Quran

Kinds of Education in Quran

 

Translator: Zahra. Kalaa
Source: rasekhoon.net



 

The scientific education:
Although the human’s knowledge comes from his cogitation and reflection and relates to rational training, the learning of science has its own methods and special manners. The holy Quran has expressed science, scientists, and the sources of science acquisition more than seven-hundred times and has stated the learner’s duties and the manners of science acquisition.
1) The worth of science:
بَلىَ‏ قَدْ جَاءَتْكَ ءَايَاتىِ فَكَذَّبْتَ بهَِا وَ اسْتَكْبرَْتَ وَ كُنتَ مِنَ الْكَفِرِينَ(59)
“(Zumar, verse 9): … say: are those who know equal to those who do not know?...”
* ن وَ الْقَلَمِ وَ مَا يَسْطُرُونَ(1)
“(Qalam, verse 1): Nun.(I swear) by the pen and what they write”.
2) Scientists worth:
يَأَيهَُّا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ إِذَا قِيلَ لَكُمْ تَفَسَّحُواْ فىِ الْمَجَالِسِ فَافْسَحُواْ يَفْسَحِ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ وَ إِذَا قِيلَ انشُزُواْ فَانشُزُواْ يَرْفَعِ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ مِنكُمْ وَ الَّذِينَ أُوتُواْ الْعِلْمَ دَرَجَاتٍ وَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ(11)
“(Mujādilah, verse 11): …Allah will exalt those of you believe, and those who are given knowledge, in high degree…”.
3) The benediction for the increase of knowledge:
فَتَعَلىَ اللَّهُ الْمَلِكُ الْحَقُّ وَ لَا تَعْجَلْ بِالْقُرْءَانِ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يُقْضىَ إِلَيْكَ وَحْيُهُ وَ قُل رَّبّ‏ِ زِدْنىِ عِلْمًا(114)
)“Ṭāhā, verse 114): … and say, O my Lord! Increase me in knowledge”.
4) Exalted God is the first teacher for human:
* الرَّحْمَانُ(1) عَلَّمَ الْقُرْءَانَ(2) خَلَقَ الْانسَنَ(3) عَلَّمَهُ الْبَيَانَ(4)
)“Rahmān, verse 1-4): the all-beneficent has taught the Quran he created the human taught him articulate (mode of) speech”.
5) God’s prophets’ duty is education (training):
هُوَ الَّذِى بَعَثَ فىِ الْأُمِّيِّنَ رَسُولًا مِّنهُْمْ يَتْلُواْ عَلَيهِْمْ ءَايَاتِهِ وَ يُزَكِّيهِمْ وَ يُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَ الحِْكْمَةَ وَ إِن كاَنُواْ مِن قَبْلُ لَفِى ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ(2)
)“Jumʻa,verse 2): it is he who sent among the illiterate people a messenger
From among themselves recite to them his verses, to purify them, and to teach them the book and wisdom, although they had been before in manifest (gross) error”.
6) The manners of science acquisition:
قَالَ لَهُ مُوسىَ‏ هَلْ أَتَّبِعُكَ عَلىَ أَن تُعَلِّمَنِ مِمَّا عُلِّمْتَ رُشْدًا(66)
)“Ka΄hfe,verse 66): Moses said to him: may I follow you for the purpose that you teach me some of the probity( Divine knowledge) that you have been taught”.
The economic education:
The economic security of human life and its correct policies have been one of human’s worries a long time ago. The holy Quran has explained the correct economy, its purposes, and the ways of legal earning.
1) The lawful and prohibited (taboo) manners in the economy:
الَّذِينَ يَأْكُلُونَ الرِّبَواْ لَا يَقُومُونَ إِلَّا كَمَا يَقُومُ الَّذِى يَتَخَبَّطُهُ الشَّيْطَانُ مِنَ الْمَسّ‏ِ ذَالِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَالُواْ إِنَّمَا الْبَيْعُ مِثْلُ الرِّبَواْ وَ أَحَلَّ اللَّهُ الْبَيْعَ وَ حَرَّمَ الرِّبَواْ فَمَن جَاءَهُ مَوْعِظَةٌ مِّن رَّبِّهِ فَانتَهَى‏ فَلَهُ مَا سَلَفَ وَ أَمْرُهُ إِلىَ اللَّهِ وَ مَنْ عَادَ فَأُوْلَئكَ أَصْحَبُ النَّارِ هُمْ فِيهَا خَلِدُونَ(275(
)“Baqarah, verse 275): those who shallow usury cannot stand but like one deranged by the Devil’s touch. That is because the say; trading is only like usury, and Allah has allowed trading and forbidden usury. Whoever, on receiving advice from his Lord, relinquishes (usury), he shall have what has already passed, and his affair is in the hands of Allah and whoever return (to usury) these are inmates of the fire, they shall abide in it”.
2) Establishing the Justice is the most important purpose of the economy:
لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلَنَا بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَ أَنزَلْنَا مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَ الْمِيزَانَ لِيَقُومَ النَّاسُ بِالْقِسْطِ وَ أَنزَلْنَا الحَْدِيدَ فِيهِ بَأْسٌ شَدِيدٌ وَ مَنَفِعُ لِلنَّاسِ وَ لِيَعْلَمَ اللَّهُ مَن يَنصُرُهُ وَ رُسُلَهُ بِالْغَيْبِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ قَوِىٌّ عَزِيزٌ(25)
“(Hadīd,(iron),verse 25): certainly we sent our messengers with clear arguments, and we sent down with them the book and the balance that people may conduct themselves with equity and we sent down iron, in which there is great might and user for mankind, so that Allah may know those who help him and his messenger in absence ( unseen). Surely, Allah is All-strong, All-mighty”.
3) The distribution of wealth is another purpose of economy:
مَّا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلىَ‏ رَسُولِهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرَى‏ فَللهِ‏َِّ وَ لِلرَّسُولِ وَ لِذِى الْقُرْبىَ‏ وَ الْيَتَامَى‏ وَ الْمَسَاكِينِ وَ ابْنِ السَّبِيلِ كىَ‏ْ لَا يَكُونَ دُولَةَ بَينْ‏َ الْأَغْنِيَاءِ مِنكُمْ وَ مَا ءَاتَئكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَ مَا نهََئكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانتَهُواْ وَ اتَّقُواْ اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ(7)
)“Hashr, verse 7): whatever (the spoils) Allah has resorted to his messenger from the people of the town, it is for Allah and for the messenger, and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the traveler, so that they do not circulate among the rich of you. Take whatever the messenger gives you, relinquish whatever he forbids you, and be wary of Allah. Surely, Allah is severe in retribution”.
4) The economic education about writing debt, creditor, and loan, (Baqarah, verse 281).
5) The education of the economic collaboration with orphans, (Nisā, verse6).
6) The payment training of women’s economic rights (Nisā, 4…)
The spiritual effect in economic growth:
وَ لَوْ أَنَّ أَهْلَ الْقُرَى ءَامَنُواْ وَ اتَّقَوْاْ لَفَتَحْنَا عَلَيهِْم بَرَكَاتٍ مِّنَ السَّمَاءِ وَ الْأَرْضِ وَ لَكِن كَذَّبُواْ فَأَخَذْنَاهُم بِمَا كَانُواْ يَكْسِبُونَ(96)
“(Aʻrāf,verse96): and if the people of the towns had believed and guarded (against evils), we would certainly have opened to them blessing from the heaven and the earth. But they denied; so we seized them because of what they used to earn”.
فَإِذَا بَلَغْنَ أَجَلَهُنَّ فَأَمْسِكُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ أَوْ فَارِقُوهُنَّ بِمَعْرُوفٍ وَ أَشهِْدُواْ ذَوَىْ عَدْلٍ مِّنكمُ‏ْ وَ أَقِيمُواْ الشَّهَادَةَ لِلَّهِ ذَالِكُمْ يُوعَظُ بِهِ مَن كاَنَ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللَّهِ وَ الْيَوْمِ الاَْخِرِ وَ مَن يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ يجَْعَل لَّهُ مخَْرَجًا(2)
وَ يَرْزُقْهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَا يحَْتَسِبُ وَ مَن يَتَوَكلَ‏ْ عَلىَ اللَّهِ فَهُوَ حَسْبُهُ إِنَّ اللَّهَ بَالِغُ أَمْرِهِ قَدْ جَعَلَ اللَّهُ لِكلُ‏ِّ شىَ‏ْءٍ قَدْرًا(3)
)“Ṭalāq(divorce),sings2_3): So when they have reached their prescribed time, then retain them with kindness or separate( leave) them with kindness, and call two witnesses ( two men) of Justice from among you (Muslim), and give upright testimony for Allah; this admonition will be accepted by a person who believes in Allah and the hereafter, and who regards piety in Allah’s way, he will make a way for him (her) to get out of the hard situation.*And Allah provides sustenance for him/her (believer) from where he could not even imagine. And whoever puts his trust in Allah, he will suffice him (her).verily Allah will fulfill his command, Allah indeed has appointed measure for everything”.
Therefore, in addition to materialistic factors, Quran educates (trains) his/her addressees to consider the spiritual factors in the economic affairs and not to limit their economic point of view. Moreover, this subject matter is a kind of Qur΄anic scientific theorization apart from the economic education, the definition of alms and tithe tax, encouragement to donation, sacrifice, and collaboration to eradicate destitution and the purification of people’s soul.
The political education:
Human in the society should set up government and organize his/ her political affairs .The holy Quran has focused on this subject and has indicated the generalities of the Islamic political systems and its parameters.
1) The holy Quran has defined the legitimacy from top to down (God, prophet…), but the human political systems define the legitimacy from down to top (people in the presidency of the government).
يَأَيهَُّا الَّذِينَ ءَامَنُواْ أَطِيعُواْ اللَّهَ وَ أَطِيعُواْ الرَّسُولَ وَ أُوْلىِ الْأَمْرِ مِنكمُ‏ْ فَإِن تَنَازَعْتُمْ فىِ شىَ‏ْءٍ فَرُدُّوهُ إِلىَ اللَّهِ وَ الرَّسُولِ إِن كُنتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَ الْيَوْمِ الاَْخِرِ ذَالِكَ خَيرٌْ وَ أَحْسَنُ تَأْوِيلاً(59)
)“Nisā,verse 59): O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey messenger and those vested with authority among you...”
2) Accepting the consultation in political systems in company with obedience from leader:
فَبِمَا رَحْمَةٍ مِّنَ اللَّهِ لِنتَ لَهُمْ وَ لَوْ كُنتَ فَظًّا غَلِيظَ الْقَلْبِ لاَنفَضُّواْ مِنْ حَوْلِكَ فَاعْفُ عَنهُْمْ وَ اسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمْ وَ شَاوِرْهُمْ فىِ الْأَمْرِ فَإِذَا عَزَمْتَ فَتَوَكَّلْ عَلىَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يحُِبُّ الْمُتَوَكلِِّينَ(159)
“(Āli ʻimrān, verse 159): and consult them in the affairs, so when you have decided, then put your trust in Allah. Surely Allah loves those who trust in him”…
وَ مَا كاَنَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ وَ لَا مُؤْمِنَةٍ إِذَا قَضىَ اللَّهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ أَمْرًا أَن يَكُونَ لهَُمُ الخِْيرََةُ مِنْ أَمْرِهِمْ وَ مَن يَعْصِ اللَّهَ وَ رَسُولَهُ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلَالًا مُّبِينًا(36)
)“Ahzāb, verse 36): A believing man or woman may not, when Allah and his messenger have decided an affair (for them), have any option (choice) in their decision, and whoever disobeys Allah and his apostle, has certainly strayed into manifest error (astray)”.
3) Lack of dominance of the infidels on Muslim is the important principle of Islam international policy:
الَّذِينَ يَتَرَبَّصُونَ بِكُمْ فَإِن كاَنَ لَكُمْ فَتْحٌ مِّنَ اللَّهِ قَالُواْ أَ لَمْ نَكُن مَّعَكُمْ وَ إِن كاَنَ لِلْكَافِرِينَ نَصِيبٌ قَالُواْ أَ لَمْ نَسْتَحْوِذْ عَلَيْكُمْ وَ نَمْنَعْكُم مِّنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَاللَّهُ يحَْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ وَ لَن يجَْعَلَ اللَّهُ لِلْكَافِرِينَ عَلىَ المُْؤْمِنِينَ سَبِيلاً(141)
)“Nisā(women),verse 141): … and Allah will not give the disbeliever any way (of success) over the believer”.
4) The holy Quran has referred to the assignment of the successor by God’s prophets and the leadership conditions and society management:
قَالَ رَبّ‏ِ اشْرَحْ لىِ صَدْرِى(25) وَ يَسِّرْ لىِ أَمْرِى(26) وَ احْلُلْ عُقْدَةً مِّن لِّسَانىِ(27) يَفْقَهُواْ قَوْلىِ(28) وَ اجْعَل لىّ‏ِ وَزِيرًا مِّنْ أَهْلىِ(29)
هَارُونَ أَخِى(30) اشْدُدْ بِهِ أَزْرِى(31) وَ أَشْرِكْهُ فىِ أَمْرِى(32)
“(Ṭāhā, verses 25-32): he (Moses) said: O my Lord! Expand my breast for me and make my affair easy for me Remove the hitch from my tongue that they may understand my speech better”.
Ethical education:
There are a lot of verses in the holy Quran to express valuable and valueless ethics and the way of their stabilization in individuals and the society. Therefore, the ethical education of human has been considered by Quran and it has insisted on it The holy.
The purification of the Quran and ethical growth has been called “Taz΄kīyah” (freeing from immorality) and the Quran has considered it as prophetic purposes, (Jum‛ih, verse 2). The holy Quran insists on ethical virtues such as: truth, trustee, fulfilment of promise, Justice, etc….
It has disagreed with vices such as: treachery, back biting, slander (accusation), haughtiness, etc…, that are considered as mortal sins.
In this case, the prophet has been introduced as an ethical pattern:
وَ لَمَّا رَءَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الْأَحْزَابَ قَالُواْ هَذَا مَا وَعَدَنَا اللَّهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ صَدَقَ اللَّهُ وَ رَسُولُهُ وَ مَا زَادَهُمْ إِلَّا إِيمَانًا وَ تَسْلِيمًا(22)
)“Ahzāb, verse 22): certainly the messenger of Allah is an outstanding (excellent) Exemplar, for those who have hope in Allah’s grace and the last day and remembers Allah much”.
وَ إِنَّكَ لَعَلىَ‏ خُلُقٍ عَظِيمٍ(4)
)“Qalam,verse 4): and most surely you conform( you self) to sublime morality”.
The best ethical attributes are God’s attributes that human should attempt to achieve them.
صِبْغَةَ اللَّهِ وَ مَنْ أَحْسَنُ مِنَ اللَّهِ صِبْغَةً وَ نحَْنُ لَهُ عَبِدُونَ(138)
)“Baqarah, verse 138): the baptism of Allah, and who baptize better than Allah? And him do we worship”.
The emotional education:
One of human’s inner dimensions is his/her emotions. The holy Quran has referred to this inner dimension in different ways and has emphasized on its improvement, fostering, conducting, and reforming.
FOR EXAMPLE:
الَّذِينَ يُنفِقُونَ فىِ السَّرَّاءِ وَ الضرََّّاءِ وَ الْكَظِمِينَ الْغَيْظَ وَ الْعَافِينَ عَنِ النَّاسِ وَ اللَّهُ يحُِبُّ الْمُحْسِنِينَ(134)
)“Āli ʻImrān, verse 134): those who (benevolently) in ease and adversity, and those who restrain their and pardon people, and Allah loves the virtuous ( the doer of good”(,
وَ إِذَا سَمِعُواْ مَا أُنزِلَ إِلىَ الرَّسُولِ تَرَى أَعْيُنَهُمْ تَفِيضُ مِنَ الدَّمْعِ مِمَّا عَرَفُواْ مِنَ الْحَقّ‏ِ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا ءَامَنَّا فَاكْتُبْنَا مَعَ الشَّاهِدِينَ(83)
“(Mā'ʻidah, verse 83): and when they hear what has been revealed to the messenger, you see their eyes overflowing with tears, because of the truth that the recognized. They say: our Lord! We believe, so write us down among ( with) the witnesses’’.
وَ لَا عَلىَ الَّذِينَ إِذَا مَا أَتَوْكَ لِتَحْمِلَهُمْ قُلْتَ لَا أَجِدُ مَا أَحْمِلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ تَوَلَّواْ وَّ أَعْيُنُهُمْ تَفِيضُ مِنَ الدَّمْعِ حَزَنًا أَلَّا يجَِدُواْ مَا يُنفِقُونَ(92(
)“Tubah, verse 92): Nor in those who when they came to you that might carry them, you said; I cannot find that on which to carry you”. They turned back, while their eyes overflowed with tears of grief, because they did not find anything to spend ( in God’s way)”.

 

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