Translator: Davood Salehan
The Industrial Revolution means the major change in production methods using "machine". Due to the growing demand of people for new products which were known as a result of geographical discoveries and commercial revolution, new and better methods were developed.
In the late sixteenth century and up to next two hundred years a producing new method was introduced in England called "home methods". Under this method, merchants sent raw materials such as wool to home workers and employees made them in the form of fabric or clothing and he received money for it. But home method was inappropriate for the growing demand of people for goods, especially textiles and fastest methods became necessary. Factory method could meet this demand. The Industrial Revolution began in England. Unlike political revolution which was limited by certain incident and date, the industrial revolution included a series of gradual changes that continue to this day. Around the year 1750, these changes were observed in the UK. British is known as industrial revolution center as firstly, British trader became rich due to trade relations with the colonies, and they wanted to spend their money to make cars and new factories.
Secondly, there were large quantities of raw materials such as iron to build new machines and coal in order to operate them in this country. In addition, the British businessmen could purchase cotton from their colonies and other parts.
Thirdly, Britain had vast markets to sell their goods in America and Asia.
Fourthly, there were enough workers for new factories in the UK because lord and vassal regime had been declining in that country faster than other parts and as a result farmers became interested in factories.
Fifthly, UK had the largest merchant fleet in the world. It could carry raw materials from colonies and send finished goods to there.
Sixthly, Britain stayed away of the continent's wars in the eighteenth century due to being geographically separated from Europe.
It also had good ports and even the weather was favorable for weaving fabrics because the humidity caused the yarn became ruptured later, and its government was more stable.
Creating spinning loom which destroyed balance between spinning and weaving led to an effort to improve and accelerate weaving. As a result a Knitting machine was built. It stepped up demand for the purchase of cotton and directly led to creating cotton erasing machine.
Modification of machine required providing iron with new techniques for melting iron and development of steel coal and since they needed coal rock to produce steam to operate the machine, better ways of mining the iron was necessary. Hydropower used in some primarily machines had some faults.
For example, manufacturers had to build factories along the rivers. But this error was solved in 1769 AD, when James Watt invented "steam" machine. By the year 1800, steam engines were replaced by water power devices. From this time onward, industry owners did not have to build factories along the river and could build them near the market or in the vicinity of sources of raw materials.
Using the steam engine in the transportation, distribution of goods was faster. Steamboat by American Robert Fulton and locomotive by the George Stevenson of Britain made traveling by sea and land easy. Later, inventing a car that worked with diesel fuel and was invented by the German Daimler made individual travel possible, and completion of the airplane by American Wright brothers led to human travel through the air.
Faster methods of contacts were invented by American Morse (telegraph, 1844) and American Alexander Bell who invented Telephone in 1878 and Italian Marconi who invented wireless telegraphy in 1895 and American Lee De Forest who made radio in 1907. Then in 1925, an American person called the Azores Kane invented the television.
Changes occurred in other industries as well. Between 1800 and 1830 AD with building printer by iron and then using steam machine in printing, a revolution emerged in book printing and press and it was naturally very effective in dissemination of knowledge and the reduction of newspapers' cost.
Almost all industries worked by machine and new industries such as oil extraction were created.
In the eighteenth century, farmers were still working by primitive (elementary) tools and simple methods. Farmers migrated to urban and industrial centers, and therefore, a food shortage was felt. In summary reducing the number of British farmers made them use machines in the fields instead of human force.
In the eighteenth and the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, new devices were invented which were effective in agriculture. The machine increased the production. Some machines were invented for threshing. Using chemical fertilizers increased yield. In general, knowledge helped agriculture out on following ways:
1. one is that knowledge destroyed pests which hurt plants.
2. It corrected methods of agriculture and irrigation.
3. It had caused food preservation.
In the mid-nineteenth century, Britain was agriculture country. At that time industry and business were more important than farming. Britain's textile and products were sold around the world, so England became very rich. Britain had the largest merchant marine fleet in the world and had the most severe economic and financial influence. After 1870, the industrial revolution spread to the rest of Europe and then America and Asia.
The use of the machine led to workers to work in factory and they were there at a specific time.
Producing product in large quantities was possible by the following factors:
First, each worker was assigned a small part of the job. As unfinished good was completed easily when it was in hands of the last worker.
Second entire product became similar. Thus, expertise was not necessary for a person in making a commodity.
Use of machinery and plant and division of labor and commodity production in large quantities led to the development of new capitalism.
The Industrial Revolution's results
1. In the result of Industrial Revolution, middle-class of capitalism's power and influence was increased, and the land owners' aristocracy lost their importance.
2. By increase of the number of workers, their applications in order to obtain the right to vote in political affairs became more.
3. To protect workers and consumers, the government set rules on union formation and establishment of the minimum wage and setting condition of work and monitoring goods and food.
4. Development of industry enhanced nationalism at home and imperialism abroad, as the countries tried to have as much as possible sources of food as well as a market for their own products.
5. The other result of the Industrial Revolution was increase of population. At the same time with industrial progress, advances happened in medicine as well, and this naturally helped to the increase in population.
6. At this time, there was the problem of feeding the world's growing population, especially in the backward areas. Some of the most populous countries immigrated to the low-population countries (like the USA). This led to issues.
7. Easy ability to work and hope to live led so many people live in cities, and thus, cities gradually grew.
8. Many new machines ran by women and children and employers mostly hired them because they had lower wages.
9. Industrial Revolution made women "independent" economically and today, they can vote and obtain jobs and are the same with men in terms of educational facilities.
10. Industrial Revolution even made women's work at home easier because machines like washing machine or dishwasher or tools like them were at their disposal.
Despite many benefits of industrial revolution, it brought many problems such as:
1. The loss of individual skills and lack of pride of mastery
2. Uniform of working methods
3. The creation of slums due to workers stay in the neighborhood
4. The need to create recreational facilities for the masses
5. The increasing virulence of military technics caused by scientific discoveries
6. Almost complete continuity of workers to work and economic instability of them.