Translator: Davood Salehan
Studying about informal Jewish sects in Israel:
As you know, a large majority of Israelis are immigrants who have immigrated to the country on the basis of the Law of Return, which was issued in 1950. The law gives every Jew in the world the right to immigrate to Israel and the right to acquire citizenship; unless public security or public hygiene is alarmed.
The law does not specify who is a Jew? It did not provide a precise definition for Judaism and by the aim has let the circle of those who have the right to use the title to be open to expand it, but later it gave it to Israel. According to one attachment of this law close relatives of a person who matches on the law such as his wife, grandson and grandfather could also acquire Israeli citizenship, even if they are non-Jews. Although the government gives citizenship to those people who claim they are Jews and knows them as the citizen, many of them are not recognized as Jewish by the head of Israel's rabbis. This is the basic problem for them and it has become serious. Conflicts and debates on this issue have continued for many years and it is known by title of (Who is a Jew?).
not admitting them to be Jewish has bothered Israeli seculars that Israel's rabbis' head over his position against them, and also because of his control over citizens' private lives, has done severe criticism, even secular party of Shinui (change) has formed basis to fight the domination and interference. The head of rabbis of Israel is the body responsible for determining the veracity of the Judaism claim that is Jewish. President of the Jewish rabbis defined being Jew as follows: (Jew is a person who is born from a Jewish mother or through the Orthodox religion (religion of head of rabbis) has converted to Judaism, and not to be refrained to any other religion).
Recitation (Qaraee) Jewish sect
Of the congregation who shortly after the announcement of the Israeli government moved to the land is the Jewish Recitation sect that is an old and large Jewish sect that emerged in Iraq in the second century AH (eighth century). The founder and the first leader of the sect was Anan Ben David. Despite all other Jewish sects in the Near East were under intense pressure, the given sect was growing in the region; the difference between the sect and other Jewish sects is that it does not recognize the Talmud as the Bible and the second source of Jewish law after the Torah, so that a person born from a non-Jewish mother and Jewish father is not known as Jew. In addition, there are differences in matters of divorce, marriage, prayer, and other issues between other sects with this sect. Orthodox Rabbis know followers of the Recitation Jewish sect out of religion and deal and marriage with them and even living among them is forbidden.
Former chief of Sephardic rabbis, Rabbi Nasim, wrote in response to a question about the possibility of marrying with recitation Jews: Such measure is not permissible unless the Qrayyan (recitation Jews) make conversion to the Orthodox. Former chief of Ashkenazi rabbis, rabbi Terman, also said: Our scholars have cursed any person who ignores the sanctity of marriage by recitation Jews; therefore, it is not possible to remove that prohibition. Since the civil rights and personal issues are associated with the President of the rabbis, recitations suffer many problems as a result of his position. They cannot have marriage and divorce document from the president of the rabbis, or they cannot bury their dead in the Jewish cemetery and they have no right to be member of city council. As a result of the limitations, the sectarian has established a religious authority that investigates above-mentioned problems that is Halal and Haram of sect members and the clean and unclean people. The Cult is known detached sect of the Jewish sect by the Presidency of rabbis, and accordingly, the State of Israel has the same behavior to them as it has with non-Jewish tribes, such as Darzis, Christians, Muslims and Baha'is. The cult considers government's deal with its members as second-class citizens as treason. Therefore, many of them have migrated to France and Canada and the United States.
Progressives, reformers and conservatives
Other Jewish groups in Israel, who are not known as Jews, are a group that called themselves progressive ones. They essentially are reformist and conservative Jews. Reformer Jews emerged in Germany in the early nineteenth century and the conservatives Jews were split of them, too. They disagree with Orthodox Jews on fundamental questions. For example, unlike Orthodox Jews, who believe in the infallibility of the Bible and its infallibility, believe that the Torah was written by different people in different stages that were not of without errors. They also do not believe in the sanctity of the Talmud and only accept a part of it. Conservative Jews in particular believe that the phenomenon of revelation is continuous and law is in constant evolution status. They and reformists have delegates who deny attempting to legislate new rulings as appropriate ones. These two groups also give right to women to be rabbi and doing rabbi tasks, such as prayers, reading the homily, the nobility of religious rituals. The two groups now have tens of female rabbis, while in the Orthodox Jews' religion, woman rabbis is forbidden and Orthodox Jews know any marriage and other contracts that these rabbis conclude invalid. Many reformers, unlike the Orthodox ones who know Jewish mother as a necessary condition for being Jewish, believe that a necessary condition of being Jewish is a Jewish father. Marriage of Jews with non-Jews is also permitted.
Such different rules and opinions put them out of Judaism in sight of the chief rabbis and Orthodox Jews. In the early years of the establishment of Israel, the group complained Ben-Gurion and Golda Meir the fact that they were not recognized by the Department of the rabbis. They urged members of the two sects to increase the number of their immigrants to Israel so that they become a power within Israel and be recognized and official. President of the rabbis sometimes issued statements against the group. In one of these statements is as follows: (reformists are a separatist religious community in Israel. Their religion is different with Jewish religion in all aspects because they do not believe in the Torah and know mixed marriages permissible. Isaac Nasim, former chief of Sephardic rabbis, also said: (the reform is not a religion) and in one of its statements, banned people from praying in the synagogues of the two groups. In 1982 statement, the chief of rabbis said: saying pray in the synagogues of Conservatives and Reformists is purely forbidden, and everyone who says prayer in the synagogue, has failed in duties of Torah and prayer task.
In 2004, the Declaration was published in the Orthodox newspapers signed by the Great Orthodox rabbis such as Rabbi Shalom Yosef al-Yashif and rabbi Ufa Diya Yusuf, leader of spiritual party of Shas. In this announcement they have said about reformists and conservatives: (they destroy Judaism and strive to burn the Holy Land, and according to (the teachings of) the Torah, they will not be recognized officially. Negotiation with the two parties, which have distorted the Torah, is strictly prohibited). Orthodox Jewish rabbis and politicians use every occasion to remind Jews of the authenticity of these two groups and the lack of legitimate. By these beliefs, the two groups will not be recognized officially, and their number is increasing in Israel, and their activities are extensive and they have many institutions and synagogues. The Israeli government also recognizes them and gives them citizenship and knows them citizens with full citizenship right. The Israeli Supreme Court has issued rulings allowing them, despite the opposition of the chief of rabbis, to be member of city council. Although these two groups are not recognized by rabbis, some other immigrants, like Russian immigrants in order to convert to Judaism and acquisition of Israeli citizenship, rely on the groups and receive document of being Jew from them. Reformers and conservatives are of active groups in the Zionist movement, and each has specific organizations that are actively working towards achieving the goals of Zionism, including helping the migrants and organizing the settlement and nationality. Each of these two groups have specific towns and are working with the government to acquire the rabbi presidency for their group, but the pressure which the Orthodox rabbi put on the government has made doing so difficult in the near future, however to fulfill such desires in long term is possible due to the increasing number of reformers and conservatives as a result of continuous birth and migration. The number of followers of these groups in the United States is more than three million people, and they have a strong influence on Israel for their financial contributions, and they are effective in the United States' policy as well.
Reconstruction of Jew
Jew reconstruction sectarian is a new sect established by famous Rabbi Mordechai Qablan (and 1980) in the first half of the twentieth century in the United States. The cult is the first Jewish sect who was formed in the United States. Mordechai developed his thoughts in a book called (Judaism as a civilization). Rabbi Mordechai believes that Judaism is not only a religion, but it is advanced religious civilization that in its formation and the production a number of elements such as literature, national heritage, arts, traditions have participated, and religion is one of the elements, and all these elements are all in evolving; therefore, he believes that the law should be transformed to meet the needs of the day and age. He does not believe in the inspiration or infallibility and immunity from error in Torah because it was written by different authors and in different ages and those who wrote it was human. Rabbi Mordechai also believes that there are some laws in Judaism that through the centuries they have suffered from stagnation and obsolescence, and the Jews today are imperative to get rid of these rules and this is necessary for their survival. He denies the miracles that are mentioned in the Torah. This sect has authored several prayer books by add or remove of other prayer books of Jews. In rewritten books, the subject of the descent of Torah on Mount in Sinai has been removed. The principle of prayer which refers to sincere Jesus himself is also removed. Statements in which also refer to the reward and punishment issues or Jews being the chosen nation have been removed; while most Jewish prayer books emphasize on the Jewish people as chosen people. The founder of this sect does not believe that Jews are chosen people of God and he knows it as a racist belief that is incompatible with day and age and is a kind of self-delusion and self-harm for its adherents, and it means that to be chosen is something that individual inherits it.
Rabbi Mordechai says the opinion in other words that it justifies superiority of one race and shows inequality of people as a normal thing; but that it is undemocratic and unethical.