Translator: Zahra. Kalaa
According to the claim of the Sunni scientists, when the second caliph proposed marriage to Umme Gulthum, Amir Momenan ( peace be upon him) excused her low age and he refused to accept this marriage. But the second caliph mentioned a reason that made Amir Momenan accept it.
Abd Al-Razagh Sanaei has written
تزوج عمر بن الخطاب أم كلثوم بنت علی بن أبی طالب وهی جاریة تلعب مع الجواری فجاء إلى أصحابه فدعوا له بالبركة فقال إنی لم أتزوج من نشاط بی ولكن سمعت رسول الله صلى الله علیه وسلم یقول إن كل سبب ونسب منقطع یوم القیامة إلا سببی ونسبی فأحببت أن یكون بینی وبین نبی الله صلی الله علیه وسلم سبب ونسب
Umar Ben Khatab married Umme Gulthum, the daughter of Ali Ben Abi Taleb. Umme Gulthum was a child that played with other children. Umar visited his companions and they wished him bliss.
Umar said '' the reason of my marriage is not due to the enthusiasm of youth period, but I have heard from the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) that bade '' all of kinds of kinship through marriage and consanguinal ties will be ended in the doomsday except mine''. Therefore, I would like to keep consanguinal ties with the messenger of God''.
Al-Sanaei, Abu Bakr Abd Al-Razagh Ben Hamam (died in 211 A.H.); Al-Mosnef v 6 p 164; researcher: Habib Al-Rahman Al-Azami; publication house: Al-Maktab Al-Eslamie-Beirut; Al-Sanie: Al-Ola
Shitte and Sunni agreed unanimously that the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) married the daughter of Umar. Consanguinal ties of Umar with the messenger of God kept with this marriage. Therefore, why should Umar have married Umme Gulthum?
There is no difference that you be the brother-in-law of a family or a person be brother-in-law of a family and in both ways, there is consanguinal ties. If kinship with the messenger of God had been useful for someone in the doomsday, the marriage of Hafase with the messenger of God would have proved it.
Hence, the excuse of kinship with the messenger of God through the marriage of Umar Umme Gulthum was false and this made the origin of the marriage false.
Sayad Naser Hussein Laknavi has said about this
وأما ما وقع فی هذا الخبر المكذوب أن عمر قال للأصحاب: إن رسول الله ( ص ) قال: كل نسب وسبب منقطع یوم القیامة إلا نسبی وسببی، وكنت قد صحبته فأحببت أن یكون هذا أیضا.
فمردود لأن اتصال السبب من رسول الله ( ص ) لعمر بعد الصحبة كان حاصلا بلا شبهة عند أهل السنة من جهة أبنته حفصة: فإنها كانت من أزواج رسول الله ( ص )، وهذا الاتصال یكفی له أن كان عمر بن الخطاب مؤمنا مصدقا لقوله، وإن لم یكن مؤمنا مصدقا للرسول ( ص ) فما یزیده هذا الاتصال الذی طلبه من علی ( ع ) وهو محرم علیه بوجوه عدیدة غیر تقصیر وتخسیر كما لا یخفى على من له حظ من الإیمان، ونصیب.
What has been said in this false narration is that Umar Said to his companions'' as a matter of fact, the messenger of God bade '' all of kinds of kinship through marriage and consanguinal ties will be ended in the doomsday except mine'' and I was one of companions of Hazrat Muhammad and I would like to keep consanguinal ties with the messenger of God.
This remark is totally false because consanguinal ties between Umar and the messenger of God (peace be upon him and his descendants) was through the marriage of the daughter of Umar, Hafase, after he became one of the companions of the prophet without any doubt in the point of view of Sunni scientists and she was one of wives of the messenger of God ( peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) and such consanguinal ties had been enough to have relationship with the messenger of God if Umar would have believed in the remarks of the messenger of God.
In addition, he had not believed in the remarks of the messenger of God, the repetition of this consanguinal ties with proposing marriage to the daughter of Ali would have been no use for him. Marriage with Umme Gulthum was Haram for Umar in some aspects and a person have faith in God, she or he can understand this matter (the matter of lack of equality that will be discussed in detail).
Al-Musavi Al-Hendi, Al-Sayad Naser Hussein ( contemporary writer); Efham Al-Ada Al-Khosum Betakzib Ma Aftaraho Ala Sayedatena Umme Gulthum Alayha Salam Al-Hay Al-Ghayum v 1p 140; Taghdim and Tahghigh and Taligh : Al-Doktor Muhammad Hadi Al-Amini; publication house: Maktabe Ninavi Al-Hadise-Tehran
Opposing against the tradition of the messenger of God
God has bidden to all of believers in the Quran
َّقَدْ كاَنَ لَكُمْ فىِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كاَنَ یَرْجُواْ اللَّهَ وَ الْیَوْمَ الاَْخِرَ وَ ذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِیرًا
Ye have indeed in the Messenger of Allah a beautiful pattern (of conduct) for any one whose hope is in Allah and the Final Day, and who engages much in the Praise of Allah. (Al-Ahzaab / verse 21)
God has bade to all of believers in this verse that the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) is a pattern for you and the meaning of pattern in relation to the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) is obeying him. Following the prophet as a pattern has been interpreted as and people always did it in the past because this is our usual duty and the prophet should always be your pattern. the meaning of this verse is that one of philosophies of the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) mission and believing in him are to follow the remarks and the behaviors of the prophet.
The messenger of God refused the marriage proposal of Abu Bakr and Umar: this matter is cetain that when Umar and Abu Bakr proposed marriage to Hazrat Zahar (peace be upon her), the prophet (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) rejected them. In fact, he wanted to tell them that they were not deserved to have kinship relationship with the family of the messenger of God and they were not suitable for Hazrat Zahra in a lot of aspects (age, religion, moral principles, family rank…).
Ebn Hajar Heisami has said in book '' Savaegh Mahraghe'' (chapter 11) that has been written against Shiite:
وأخرج أبو داود السجستانی أن أبا بكر خطبها فأعرض عنه صلى الله علیه وسلم ثم عمر فأعرض عنه فأتیا علیا فنبهاه إلى خطبتها فجاء فخطبها.
Abu Davud Sajastani has narrated that Abu Bakr proposed marriage to Hazrat Zahra and the messenger of Islam rejected him. Then, Umar prposed marriage to her and the messenger of God rejected him as well.
Al-Heisami, Abu Al-Abbas Ahmad Ben Ali Ebn Hajar (died in 973 A.H.); Al-Savaegh Al-Mahraghe Ali Ahl Al-Rafaz and Al-Zalal and Al-Zandaghe v 2 p 471; researcher: Muhammad Abd Al-Rahman Ben Abdullah Al-Torki-Kamel Muhammad Al-Kharat ; publication house: Moasese Al-Resale-Lebonan;Al-Tabe: Al-Ola 1417 A.H.-1997 A.D.
Ebn Haban in book ''Sahih'' and Nesaei in book '' Sonan'' have written
أخبرنا الْحُسَیْنُ بن حُرَیْثٍ قال حدثنا الْفَضْلُ بن مُوسَى عن الْحُسَیْنِ بن وَاقِدٍ عن عبد اللَّهِ بن بُرَیْدَةَ عن أبیه قال خَطَبَ أبو بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرُ رضی الله عنهما فَاطِمَةَ فقال رسول اللَّهِ صلى الله علیه وسلم أنها صَغِیرَةٌ فَخَطَبَهَا عَلِیٌّ فَزَوَّجَهَا منه.
Abdullah Ben Boride has narrated from his father that Abu Bakr and Umar proposed marriage to Fateme and the prophet of the Islam (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) bade to them '' Fateme is child''. Then Imam Ali (peace be upon him) proposed marriage and the prophet had her marry Imam Ali (peace be upon him).
Mola Ali Al-Ghari, Ali Ben Solatan Muhammad; Margha Al-Mafatih Sharh Meshkah Al-Masabih v 11 p 259; researcher: Jamal Aytani; publication house: Dar Al-Kotob Al-Elmie- Lebonan/ Beirut; Al-Tabe: Al-Ola 1422 A.H.-2001 A.
Hakem Neishaburi has said after narrating this Hadith
هذا حدیث صحیح على شرط الشیخین ولم یخرجاه.
This Hadith, according to situations that Bokhari and Mosalam have considered in relation to validity of this narration, is valid, but they have not narrated it.
Al-Neisaburi, Muhammad Ben Abdullah Abu Abdullah Al-Hakem (died in 405 A.H.); Al-Mostadrek Ala Al-Sahihin v 2 p 181; researcher: Mostafa Abd Al-Ghader Ata; publication house: Dar Al-Kotob Al-Elmie-Beirut; Al-Tabe: Al-Ola 1411 A.H.-1990 A.D .
Hence, according to what was said, the tradition of the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) is not having a girl from Ahle Beit marry Abu Bakr and Umar and it was possible that Amir Momenan had disagreed with this tradition.
Revitalizing the ignorant tradition by Umar:
One of disadvantages of proving the marriage of Umme Gulthum with Umar is that it proves that Umar Ben Al-Khatab was still the preacher of ignorant traditions after thirty years of his being chosen as the prophet and several years of caliphate of Muslims and the successor of the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) and he could never forget the ugly traditions of ignorant period. Or the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) prevented him and other Muslims from ignorant tradition.
Ebn Sad has written in book '' Al-Tabaghat Al-Kobra'' '' after Ummar proposed marriage to Umme Gulthum from Imam Ali (peace be upon him), he said to the immigrants and the supporters that had sat beside the grave of the prophet
رفئونی فرفؤوه وقالوا بمن یا أمیر المؤمنین قال بابنة علی بن أبی طالب.
Offer congratulations to me. After they congratulated him, they asked '' about whom should we congratulate?'' Umar said '' because of marriage with the daughter of Ali.
Al-Sehabe v 8 p 294; researcher: Ali Muhammad Al-Bajavi; publication house: Dar Al-Jil 1412-1992
In the time of Was common « رفئونی»or « بالرفاء والبنین » congratulating phrase darkness, but when the prophet of the Islam (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) was chosen, they prevented us from congratulating with such phrases.
Nuvi has also said clearly
وكانت ترفئة الجاهلیة أن یقال (بالرفاء والبنین) ثم نهى النبی صلى الله علیه وسلم عنها.
In the time of darkness, the people congratulated with phrase
Then the prophet of the Islam prohibited it. « بالرفاء والبنین »
Al-Nuvi, Abi Zakaria Mahya Al-Din (died 676); Al-Majmu v 16 p 205; publication house: Dar Al-Fekr Leltabae and Al-Nashr and Al-Tozi, Al-Takmale: Al-Sanie
And Einie that is one of explicators of Sahih Bokhari has written in book '' Omde Al-Ghari ''
قوله: ( بارك الله لك ) وهذه اللفظة ترد القول: بالرفاء والبنین، لأنه من أقوال الجاهلیة، والنبی صلى الله علیه وسلم كان یكره ذلك لموافقتهم فیه، وهذا هو الحكمة فی النهی.
« بارك الله لك » Phrase ''
Is a remark that rejects
« بالرفاء والبنین »
Because this sentence was one of remarks of the darkness period and the prophet of the Islam (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) would not like to tell such a sentence. Moreover, the reason of the prohibition of the prophet was due to opposing with the darkness traditions.
Al-Eini, Badr Al-Din Mahmud Ben Ahmad (died in 855 A.H.); Omde Al-Ghari Sharh Sahih Al-Bokhari v 20 p 146; publication house: Dar Ehya Al-Toras Al-Arabi-Beirut.
It is interesting that according to the Sunni narrations, Aghil Ben Abi Taleb was informed of this boycott although he migrated in the eighth year and afterwards, he was not informed of the events of that time and he did not understand the sermons of the messenger of God because of his disease. However, according to Sunni narrations, Umar, his friends and the early migrants were not informed of this prohibition.