Translator: Davood Salehan
In 1939, "Leo Szilard", Jewish physicist from Hungary, was among those who studied the phenomenon of breaking uranium core. He knew that if an amount of uranium is broken the produced energy is immense and exclusionary that destroying power of the little amount of uranium equals with thousands of tons of conventional explosives.
Due to the restrictions that Hitler had created for Jews, Szilard left Europe and immigrated to America. He met "Albert Einstein", the Jewish scientist who also was from Germany.
Later, leaders of the Jewish people in America forced Einstein to write a letter to "Franklin Roosevelt", America's president at the time, and to explain this new invention and possibility of Hitler achieving the status. It is worth noting that Nazi Germany was not able to build a nuclear bomb during World War II, although a large number of German physicists, who had fled from their country, certainly had nuclear research programs and plans.
In 1942 AD, the main German tanks exploded in Norway and their military research program was stagnating. Since then the Germany focused its military researches in the field of auto rocket bombs, but until 1945, Nazi Germany still had a long way to go in making a nuclear weapon.
Meanwhile Einstein wrote a letter to "Roosevelt" and advised him the plans to build a nuclear bomb. It is worth mentioning that in 1947, "Albert Einstein" was proposed to be the first president of Israel, and he had almost accepted the offer, but finally he rejected that.
The mentioned letter to the America's second president was written on August second 1939 and a month later World War II began in Europe. On the sixth of December 1941, finally "Roosevelt" issued the production of a nuclear bomb. The day after that Japanese army attacked "Pearl Harbor" and the United States was involved in World War II.
Scientists living in America and England that some of them were Jews fleeing from Germany and Italy publicly announced that they are scared of discovering the secrets of atomic bomb and producing it by "Hitler" and even predicted that in the case, Hitler will win the Germany war and it will be the most powerful state in the world.
In 1941, a scientific political committee called "MAAD" asked the UK government to make nuclear weapons in a confidential report and it stressed that there is no doubt do that it will have decisive results in the war.
Manhattan Project and the beginning of the nuclear age
In 1942 AD, America was planning a military nuclear research project. Millions of dollars were spent for building secret research stations of this project was. In a short time thousands of scientists, technicians and engineers were hired there. "Enrico Fermi" Italian scientist, who in the 1940s had done important searches in the case of speed of neutrons and their collide with atomic nuclei, as well as the type of radiation from uranium bombarding with slow neutrons in identifying the new core of the study, also took refugee to America and became leader of the research team in the field of chain reactions of atomic breaking the nuclei. Manhattan Project was under the control of an American army general called "Leslie Groves". An American physicist named "J. Robert O. Penhaymer" led the research team that included some of the brightest physicists such as "Fermi".
The first nuclear reactor was built in 1942 under the supervision of Fermi in Chicago.in the reactor, core disintegration or producing the power of the atom constantly took place and the controlled chain reaction process was obtained as well. The successful experiences showed that making a nuclear bomb as well as the use of nuclear power for peaceful purposes is possible. This event was called the beginning of the atomic age.
Then, by using a variety of methods, enough uranium and polonium were produced for a bomb. Engineers of bomb designed it and by examines showed how it can be exploded by T N T. the experiences completed until mid-1945.
"Captain Leonard Cheshire," the British official observer in air attacks in the "Nagasaki", describes the story of seeing the first atomic bomb as follows:
The most interesting view for me was when "Al Wares" took me to the side of the box and opened it. With all the things that I had heard and read in the last few weeks ... I should have expected that I find the bomb among the steel and concrete. I expected the bomb in high or deep place underground, but then I realized that it would have been placed in a box. At the same time, I did not have to expect that a man who showed it to me opens the box while talking. After I looked into it I looked backed because it was not an interesting thing. He said: "It is an atomic bomb." Just like a piece of straw or something else that would usually be found in the boxes.
Finally, on the sixteenth of July 1945, the first nuclear bomb was exploded in "Alamogordo" in New Mexico. The explosion was very huge. The nuclear device was placed on a steel tower. "General Thomas Farrell," states his observation of the first atomic bomb in 1945, in New Mexico:
The whole town was lit by a dazzling light like midday sun ... Thirty seconds later, the explosion took place. First, the air from the blast pushed people and objects hardly and immediately a terrible roar that warned people on the Day of Judgment was heard, and it seemed that we sinful beings have made involvement in the work of God.
A few months before the atomic bomb test in New Mexico, Germany was defeated. Until then, two other bombs had been prepared.