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21/10/1396 09:37:00 ق.ظ

Damavand, the mythological source of Iran

Damavand, the mythological source of Iran

Damavand, the mythological source of Iran

Author: Bahareh Safavi
Translator: Davood Salehan
Source: Rasekhoon.net


 
Extracted from Rasekhoon
Damavand is one of the oldest Iranian cities that in Iran's narrative history its foundation is attributed to Kiumars; the obtained evidence depicts presence of man in this land from the oldest times. Damavand is one of the oldest cities and it is the first mythical city in Iranian narrative history. Wherever the names of Zahak, Fereydoon, Kiyomars, Manouchehr and other legendary heroes are mentioned, the name of the city of Damavand is also mentioned. Guobnio wrote about Damavand's age: "The small city of Damavand is definitely one of the oldest cities in the world, whether it is known as the square of Vernet, or one of the old monuments of the ages. Undoubtedly the date of birth of Damavand is in the early ages. "
According to Gubnio, we cannot be doubted about its antiquity and due to this age and importance, 73 years ago, on the suggestion of the French Morgan, the city of Damavand and the surrounding villages were registered as a national monument in the list of national works of Iran by the number of 56. It is acknowledged that among all works which have been registered as national works, no city can be found that has been registered like this. The land of Damavand includes tradition, myth, and history and it has become very important throughout history due to the sacred mountain of Damavand, which is the scene of a number of mythological and legendary events, and it transforms into a unique symbol, giving its reputation to the land that has good weather, the fertile ground and the great military position, which is between Mazandaran and the central plateau. For this reason, despite the frequent earthquakes that ravaged the area, life has continued.
The historical background of this land needs an archaeological study to reveal its dark angles clearly, but what comes from the historical texts is that the city and Mount Damavand belong to the domain of myth, and the rulers of this land, under the title Mosqman, who were clergy and root in Armabil, managed to rule the land for a long time. After the conquest of this land by the Islamic armies, the accumulation of population and the extent and expansion of the city was so much that the need for a Jameh mosque was felt. Thus, for the first time, a Jameh mosque was built over a hill facing the city and such mosques could be found only in the early Islamic centuries.
During the Safavid and Qajar periods, between different regions around Tehran, Damavand has been considered more than other places due to its excellent weather and beautiful landscapes.
This unique city, placing in a beautiful, narrow valley on the hilltop of a famous mount is at its magnificent summit, and with its world-famous legends, is one of the most beautiful and unique parts of Tehran.
Damavand is a mountainous region located in the southern part of the central Alborz mountains, in the northeast part and in 70 km from Tehran, which reaches Larijan (one of Amol's city) from north and to Soda Kuh (one of the Qaemshahr's city) from south and it is limited to Garmsar and Varamin from southeast, to Firooz Kooh from east and to Tajrish of Tehran and Shemiran and Lavasanat from west.
This city is part of Tehran province with an area of 46452 square kilometers and extends in the eastern-western direction, with an average height of about 1800 meters above free water level.
According to the latest census of 1375, the city of Damavand has about 93920 inhabitants, of which 53% are in urban society and 47% live in rural society. Damavand has 4 urban areas: Damavand, Roodehen, Gilan, Absard, and it has central parts including Tar Rud, Abar shivah, Jamorud and Roodehen district includes Mehrabad and Abali.
Most of the city is mountainous, so that in the north it has high mountains such as Siahchal Changiz and in its southern part, the mountains of Qaraghaj and in the middle part, the Gilavand, Rudehen and Bomhen plains. They have a gentle slope toward the south. It is noteworthy that the magnificent summit of Damavand, visible from Tehran and the surrounding areas, is not visible from Damavand itself.
The people of this city believe in religion of Islam and they are Shia. In the past, in central parts, there were a number of Jews who migrated over time.
The language of the people of this city is one of the ancient dialects of Tati and is considered as the group of western languages of Iran and it is considered as the old language of the surrounding areas of Tehran and is closely linked with the languages of Mazandaran and some northern regions of Semnan. People used to speak this language in different ways in Damavand, Shemiranat, Ken, Sulaghan and some villages around Tehran and Karaj and it gradually diminished.
● Amusement Places around Damavand
Lar dam lake, the surrounding gardens, the southwest and northern hunting grounds, the air sports site such as kiting, Para glider, skiing resorts, grass skiing, and various caves in the nearby mountains like Gol-e-Zard Cave which are Damavand's amusement places. Abali Ski Resort attracts thousands of people every year. According to surveys, 93% of its users are from Tehran. other recreational area is Cheshmeh-e-Ala, which is located in north of Damavand city, and it has pure water which attracts many people every year. This water contains substances such as calcium, magnesium, iron, salt, profit, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, etc., which are useful for the treatment of kidney, respiratory, bone, muscular, skin diseases, women's diseases, etc.
▪ Damavand Aghig Mosque:
This mosque is located in the center of the city. The evidence shows the remnants of the foundation of the mosque root in the Seljuk period, but given the fact that Damavand has repeatedly suffered earthquakes and the mosque was damaged and then repaired, there is the probability for the mosque to be even more ancient. According to a tradition narrated by people from last generations which still exists among the people to this day, in the place of the mosque, before the coming of Islam, a large fire temple was established, which after the conquest of the armies of Islam the area of fire temple became a great mosque. There is another narrative that points out the mosque was built by Imam Hasan (Peace be upon him).
▪ Shibli Tower:
This tower is located at the end of the eastern part of the city, over the hills facing the city. It is limited to the Tar River from north, to the vast Islamic cemetery from south, to the valleys of the southern mountain range from the east, and to the gardens of the region from the west. On the southern and east southern sides of the tower, about 500 meters away, there is a vast Islamic cemetery from the Safavid period. Shibli is famous mystic of the third century AH. There are many differences about his name and his origins and in Persian and Arabic resources he has been named by Wolf ibn Juri, Jurin Khalaf, Wolf ibn Hamzah, and other titles.
▪ Imam Zadeh, Imamzadeh Abdullah and Obeidullah:
Its tower tomb is one of the magnificent monuments of the Mongol Ilkhan era. It is constructed based on balanced contemporary buildings, and it is comparable with the buildings such as the Alaeddin-e-Varamin Tower, Bastam tower tomb, the Imamzadeh Azhar in Hamadan.
Imam Zadeh Shamsuddin Muhammad: The building of this Imam Zadeh is related to the Safavid period, which unfortunately has not been immune from damage due to natural disasters such as earthquakes and floods. The repairs and modifications made during the reconstruction are so much that have changed the monument from its initial form, and as a result, the current construction is worthless in terms of architectural art.

/J

 
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