Translator: Samad Ahadi
The impact of Sassanid art on non-Iranian ethnicities
Sassanid art was courtier and continuous one to establish links with the Achaemenid artistic traditions and the continuation of Parthian culture. This is regarded as the final stage of the arts, which began in the Middle East and Iran four thousand years ago. In this four thousand-year-old art, there existed Achaemenid and Parthian traditions. Sassanid art had many strengths and lives. For this reason, this art surpassed the realm and scope of its time. What was the scope of this art? Sassanid art ran from the Far East to the Atlantic coast. This art had a decisive role in the formation of European and Asian art. The profound influence of the Sasanian artistic designs can be seen in Egyptian and Syrian goods, as well as in Syrian and even Roman rugs. The aesthetic ideas of Iran in India and Central Asia have become very important. In these areas, there was a distinctly distinctive Iranian art that flourished in the flourishing Central Asian units. Therefore, this art came to China from there on. Iranian art enjoyed special support during the Tang dynasty and penetrated from China to Korea and Japan.
Sassanid art watered Byzantine art. Additionally, the vast array of Byzantine art inspired Sassanian patterns. Some aspects of the Byzantine art, regardless of the effects of Iranian art, are incomprehensible and incomprehensible.
Examples of Sassanid art influence on the art of other lands
The embossed graphs on some of the barbarian stone coffins in France and Spain has been inspired by the role of textiles in the Sassanid era. In the western part of France, the Sassanian designs and patterns have been modeled in building private mosques in the late eighteenth century, near Orléans. The decorative mosaic of this building, which displays the tree of life, has perfect parallels with the mosaics at the entrance of the great Taq Bostan cave
The Effect of Sassanid Art on the Islamic PeriodIslam is the principal heir of the Sasanian art. In the Islamic era, a new life was given to them with the imprinting of the concepts of Sasanian art. During this period, using the ancient aesthetic rules and iconography, Sasanian art rebuilt life. Thus, the Sasanian art continued among the tribes and cultures that Islam had overcame them.
The industrial and artistic features of the Sassanid era, centuries after the domination of the Arabs, remained in Iran and the Middle East. The style of building fire temples was used in mosques in Iran, in the way that it should be said Islamic architecture is the Sassanid era architecture.
Religious architectureToday, more than 50 buildings have survived from various Sassanian temples. In these temples, the fire is worshiped as the symbol of Ahura Mazda. Many of these temples are located in the western part of Iran, and especially in Fars. Although the form and construction of these temples are different, they all have a certain architectural unity.
The holy fire was always on in the fireplace. The firewall was in the outboard space of the followers. In the religious occasions, they lit another fire. They placed this fire in a place where the four sides were open to it and called it Four-room. Then the believers prayed for the fire.
In the Sassanid period, Christian churches were also established. The survival of the oldest churches of this era, built with raw bricks, has remained in Castellón. In these churches, from Restoun Dari Hall like Quarterly Hall of the Palace of Bahram V in Sarvestan has been modeled.
The building arrangementThe walls of the Sassanid buildings have been covered with spectacular arrangement. Most of the elements of the exterior are inspired by the art of Hellenic. Hellenist art came to this era by party art. But these arrangements are inspired by the Iranian soul. Some of these interior arrangements have been modeled on Persepolis. However, it is clear from the archaeological findings that they were very important in this period. The Sassanian patterns of geometric and vegetation were comprised of various animal bodies. Sassanid rock was also slightly used to make walls of buildings.
ShapingThere are about thirty types of Sassanid rock with huge ascriptions. This huge formidable feature is the continuation of the ancient tradition of the Middle East. The art of the prehistoric art of the third century BC, flourished in Iran and Miandorou. The embossed graphs, undoubtedly, was more in harmony with the spirit of Iranian art.
Although the Sassanian rock formations contained magical and religious values of ancient times, the values were largely changed during this period. Almost all of the outstanding Sassanid era has been engraved in the modern Persian Fars province, which was once the Achaemenid base. The Sassanid goal was the establishment of the Achaemenid dynasty, the Sasanians considered themselves as the heirs of the Achaemenids and Kianis. They claimed to revive the Achaemenian customs and the global government of their ancestors. This was how the Sassanians, in order to represent their authority and kingdom, began shaping in the Achaemenid castle. The ambition of the Sassanid kings can be observed in the role of Rustam (near Persepolis) above the graves of the Achaemenid kings
Ritual symbols in the Sassanid eraThe carved scenes in the embossed graphs have symbolic concepts. What are the meanings of these codes and symbols? The showing the glory aspects of the kingdom is the meaning of this symbol. The character of Shah - the god, has influenced on the embossed graphs; the king who takes his power from Ahura, and also he is victorious in fighting evil. In most of The embossed graphs, Ahura Mazda hands Farahi Yazidi to the king, in which the collapse of the enemy and victories are also depicted.
The ceremony of handing Farre Izadi to Shah has been repeated in many respects. The king receives the cipher and symbol of power, that is, Farre Izadi that is head tie or floating bar, from Ahura Mazda. The companions of the Shah also watch this scene. Throughout all the third century AD, the ceremony of Farre Izadi is held on the horse back and it is repeated in The embossed graphs. Artaxerxes and Ahurazmesda are sitting on their horses. They are in a very formal mood and under the hooks of horses the Ahriman body is located which is a picture of evil in addition, under the horse's nails, the last monarch of Paradise has fallen. The body of the enemy's harmed body is one of the typical examples of these depictions.
In these embossed graphs the king is depicted giant, which is over and above all of the gods. These structures and banners were designed to strengthen the aspect of Shah.
Embossed stylisticsIn the embossed art of the Sassanid era, various styles are seen. The embossed of early Sassanid period, the flat depictions, have been influenced by the party traditions. The embossed arts are also influenced by the West's art in a very complex circle; moreover, this style is featured during the Shapur I era, and eventually it reached its peak in the ceremonies of awarding Farre izadi to Shah Bahram I in Bishapur. This style is also featured in the inappropriate and uneven forms of the non-classical style of the outstanding of Khosrow II.
The continuation of the Greeks style in the embossed art is one of the most striking features of this art in the Sassanid era and these styles have been as profile or profile figures.
In this period, in addition to the profile image, a dramatic interest was also shown in the image of three-fourths of the figure that was inherited from the Parthians. This kind of illustration has become a prominent feature of the goddess. Thus, the Sassanid rock formations were in the context of the eastern context, and remained in the spiritual and thematic aspect of the East. But in some of the expressions and some of its basic cognitive principles, the non-Mediterranean generation of Greek art had been influenced.
During the Sassanid period, paintings, mosaics, metalwork, pottery, glass and textiles were prevalent in art. On the plates of Simin, the scenes of royal hunting, the ceremony of awarding Farre Izadi to Shah, coronation, banquet, dance and scenes with religious characteristics were carved. Therefore, the role of many dummies is religious. Among other things, there is a plate on which Gamar is going to show a ritual in honor of the goddess Anahita, or another plate that plays the chariot of the moon.
Iranian languagesFrom a historical point of view, the Iranian languages are divided into three major categories:
- Ancient languages
- Middle Ages
- New languages
This collection is called the Iranian language group. Iranian languages originated from a language called Indo-Iranian. Remember that Indian and Iranian languages are a branch of Indian and European languages. The language of India and Europe is the mother of most of the tribes living in or living in the territories of the Indian subcontinent to northern Europe.
Ancient languagesThe ancient languages include the Avestan, Ancient Persian, material and secular languages.
In the regions of the east of Iran, they spoke Avestan. It sounds that the oldest remains of this language appear to be from the middle of the eighth to tenth centuries BC. In the Persian region, they spoke in Ancient Persian and the Achaemenid Kings' inscriptions were written in this language. These inscriptions date back to the middle of the fifth to the third century BC. We have very little information about other languages of this era, material and secular.
These languages have been used from around 300 BC up to 700 m. But several centuries after the Arab domination over Iran, some of the languages of the Middle Ages have been written. Some of the languages of the Middle Ages, until the Arab domination over Iran, was a common language. Middle-tongue languages are divided into two main groups: Middle-Eastern Iranian languages and eastern Middle-Eastern languages.
Parthian language or Parchian Pahlavi was the language of the Parthian period, from about 250 BC, to 224 CE. It was written by the early Sassanid period and it was common in northeastern Iran.
Middle Persian or Pahlavi (Sassanid Pahlavi) was regarded the language of South and Southwest Iran. Middle Persian was the official language of the Sassanid era. Since the language was related to the Persian region and also in terms of construction was between ancient Persian and Persian New (Dari), the new scholars call it the Middle Persian.
Persian languages include Persian dialects and Persian languages. Some of these languages have become common in Iran and some in abroad. Now some of these languages are spoken
Sassanian period literature
Why are Pahlavi literary works destroyed? Many of the literary works of the Sassanid era, both prose and order, have been lost. It was because the importance of the oral tradition in pre-Islamic Iran, most has been written more than these works. On the one hand, works in written form during the Islamic era due to the development of language and also due to the change in the Pahlavi language into Arabic were also destroyed. However, some of the works also were destroyed due to narrow religious thinking or wars and conflicts. Today, we have some Arabic and Persian translations of some of the literary works of the Sassanid era, such as” Keelah and Demnath” and “thousand and one nights”. These translations are not the original work because they have undergone many changes in rewriting.
Some of the literary works’ contents of the Sassanid era have been lost, but later reflected in Persian literary books. The epic narratives of the old era came to Shahnameh and Garshspastam and romantic narrations in Khosrawi Shirin and “seven bodies of Nezami”. Therefore, it should be said that the Pahlavi literature has continued in such Persian works.