Exracted from seeiran
Nain is located on the southern margin of the central Iranian desert and the north of GAVKHUNI Swamp. From the south to ARDAKAN city of Yazd, from the east to TABAS city from the Province of KHORASAN and from the north to the desert of KAVIR and DAMGHAN, from west to ARDESTAN and ZAVARE, from southwest to Isfahan city.
In Textile Industry, the renown of Nain in the past was a very delicate cloak, that was woven from camel`s wool, but gradually, lost its boom, and the people of this city also replaced it by carpet weaving.
Sicily Edwards says about Nain's carpet: Because the carpet wavers were used to wrapping thin spindles to make thin and fine textiles, they put the carpet pockets on the 2222 knots per inch, thus providing carpets that in terms of texture, was not similar in Iran until then. Because it was new item, and the number of the product was not too high, it sold very well.
The beginning of the entry and trade of the Nain carpet in Tehran (capital) is considered to be the year 1318 (solar calendar), the beginning of the Second World War. This event has been very effective in advancing the carpet art in this area, and it has been introduced as much as possible.
Edwards also said: "Then the world war began, and the Tehran market flourished. At that time, newly rich fellows were thinking that nothing is very good or very expensive. So Nain carpets were transported to Tehran, where they were recognized as the thinnest and one of the best carpets in Iran.
The said description is related to the situation of Nain carpets until 1328 (solar calendar). But with the passing of this time and the emergence of new social, political and cultural conditions in the world, new and wider markets for Nain rugs emerged. Not only the people of Nain showed tendency toward this profession, but also the carpet manufacturers in other parts of the country, also became interested in carpet production.
Today, in Nain district, carpet weaving is an integral part of people`s life, so that in almost every home there is at least one scaffold and a sharp viewer sees the orientation of all the exterior and interior affairs of the city in the direction of carpet weaving. As the name of Nain is an illustrator of a city with streets covered by carpets in the world.
About 1310 AH, transfer of carpets to districts, villages and neighborhoods began. In this way, in houses where scaffold was in work, they were teaching carpet weaving at the cost of one year unpaid work (to the girls who wanted to learn from the surrounding villages). After this time, apprentices made carpet scaffolds in their homes, and they also taught carpet weaving under same conditions. This situation was the cause of transfer of said art to neighboring villages and neighborhoods.
Most important development leap was in the KHOR BIYABANAK sector, which was carried out by a person called RAHIM RANG AMIZ NAINI, a servant of the Education Department, and then transferred to the KHOR region.
However, the development and expansion of the Nain carpet did not end there, and it also reached the cities and other important areas such as KASHMAR, Mashhad, AMOL (MAZANDARAN), CHAR MAHAL and BAKHTIARI, Isfahan, Fars, ZAHADAN, and other areas. And this was due to the fact that these cities were mainly carpet weavers and had special native carpets.
The Nain carpet, known for its quality in the world markets, is not the kind of carpets that used thick Iranian wool. The wool in this carpet is a delicate piece and a high percentage is the type of wool that is called fluff. But what can be said about wool or fluff used in these carpets is that it is generally of a new and pure wool and is elegantly superior to the standard of Iranian wool. Nain is a rare and suitable item for the use of non-Iranian delicate wool.
The Nain carpet has a Persian knot and two woofs. The carpet's structure is based on texture and technical condition as well. Textile defects such as crook, pure, not applying woof, duplexed, multi-colored, and false weaving in this carpet are very less and the quality of production is at high standard. Obviously here, when it comes to carpet weaving, it is a special carpet that is considered by the domestic and global markets to be a popular Iranian carpet and it is easy to understand that the high quality of texture, which ensures color stability, dimensionality, durability, as well as accuracy and accuracy in the map, has been affected by this reputation.
The woofs are generally wooden and there were attempts to adjust them to metal objects. The installation method and the method of warp beam and carpet pull down is similar to the centers of Isfahan and KASHAN, and the special people have the skills and experience in doing these things.
Rugs that are woven inside homes and mainly by women, due to the length of the weave time, there is no much pressure on the weaver. The initial payment is made while the texture is finished and the final payment is for carpets above 160 pairs (nodes) Done with hand. Nain is one of the successful carpet weaving centers of good quality. perhaps because of the relatively standard map, which speeds up production
Although today the number of these carpets has been reduced, but the use of advanced mechanical devices for washing, cutting (removing nodes and extra lint behind the carpet) and finishing is essential in completing these carpets. Nain workshops, both in the texture and in the completion stages, are generally bright and light and standard in terms of quality and this is undoubtedly, is one of reasons for high quality of the produced carpets.
Full structure of Nain carpets are made of cotton, warp and silk, but combined with wool and silk, they usually weave white silk on the edge of the carpet, which highlights the design.
Nain carpets are woven with SANE knots and their number varies from 300,000 to 1 million knots per square meter.
Rugs that are used for household use have a strong structure and tall lint to increase carpet`s durability when people keep them under the feet of individuals and families, and because Nain carpets have shorter lint, and mostly bright colors, so they are less needed for family consumption and more used for decoration.
The cream is used in the carpet of Nain, comes from the wool factory of HARAND (East Yazd), the fluff industries of KASHAN and KASHAN industries, and number 8 to 20 metric in this carpet is used, whose number 20 is used in delicate Nain carpets. The threads used in the warp beam carpet are of a kind, used in Isfahan carpets and are supplied from Isfahan and KASHAN. Despite the reputation of the silk carpets, the Nain carpet is more reliant on cotton and wool.
According to the available evidence, the first carpet designs of Nain region were prepared in pencil color in Isfahan and more in Tehran (the center of fine arts) and then stained in Nain. Of course, the art color and pointing out the carpet map was also brought to Nain by a man named MADRASI who came from Yazd to Nain and was the first photographer of this city.
The most important designs used in the Nain carpet are known designs such as Shah ABBASI, LACHAK TORANG with the use of Slim Mixtures, KHATAIY and in general, the drawings are depended on the traditional Iranian designs. The proper use of traditional designs along with the special coloring of Nain carpets has provided a unique and universal identity for these carpets. Other traditional designs of artistic uses in carpets are including: NAGSH GONBAD (SAGHFI), Haj KHANUMI, DERAKHTI, GHABI, MEHRABI, MUHARRAMAT, AFSHAN, LECHAK TORANG, and KATIBEIY.
Although the small town and the limited production and history of production, is preventing from looking at the widespread design and designers of the numerous names, such as those found in Isfahan and Tabriz, we should note that the manufacturers and designers of Nain carpet, have shown the most beautiful and pleasant cases of use and reconstruction of common designs in other areas of carpet weaving on their own carpets. However, because of some whispers in recent years, about uniformity of Nain carpets, the manufacturers of this carpet, decided to create some innovations and make more diverse designs, including: using more traditional designs, the texture of the side carpets, circles, hexagons, and eight corners. In most of these designs, the elegance and prolific design of Nain designers guarantee the unique spirit and identity of Nain carpets.
The results of the research show that all designs used in most carpet weaving areas of the country (with the exception of special designs of some areas) are used in Nain, and the introduction of all designs used in the carpet of this region requires the introduction of most recognized designs of the country. However, designs of Nain carpets are mostly LACHAK and bergamot, and the use of other designs is less. Considering the design and map of the old carpets in Nain and the statements of experts, the original designs of this region`s carpet can be as follows: LACHAK and TORANJ, AFSHAN, BARGARDAN, ABRI, MAHI DARHAM, KHESHTI, SHEKARGAH, AJHDARI,PANJE GORGI,HASHIYEH HAJ AHMADI, GHAB GHALAMDOUN and BANE ESLIM. And other newer designs used in this area include: MOHANDESI, GONBADI, GHALB DERAKHTI BOTE JEGHE, GOL FARANG and NAGHSHE GHALAT.
However, despite all of these designs, the most important and main project used in this city is LACHAK and TORANJ, and it is very diverse, and basically the Nain carpet is known to be LACHAK and TORANJ. Perhaps because of the intense use of this template, the carpet of this area is known as the mat. In examining the various designs used in the Nain carpet we get the following results:
1. A strong desire for nature, flowers and plants
In the carpet of this area, the use of KHATAEI, SHAH ABBASI and natural flowers and leaves are seen too much. And this is due to the desert geography of the region and the lack of access to such beautiful landscapes. As in the history and art of the world, we see that human beings enter into their environment in the form of art, which they wish for.
The subject matter around them is the long-term fertility concept, and all elements of the abundance of reflections of nature and fertility indicate that they may be found in the green garden or in the Garden of Paradise. This is what the semi-arid land of Iran dreams of. Although it rarely reaches it. Such a symbol in a desert city such as Nain, which has been at the peak of the survival and heat of a desert, has a meaningful meaning.
2. Unwillingness to portrait
One of the main features of Nain carpet is its reluctance to turn to portrait. In very rare examples, which are now seen, the severe weakness in the completed work has led to a reluctance to continue this work, but in the neighboring areas, there are faceted centers such as Isfahan. In response, we have achieved the following results:
1. 2) Extreme color limitations in Nain carpet coloring: face texture requires a very high and sensitive color variation, but Nain carpet color bears specific composition.
2. 2) Inability of the technique texture of the region: This is the only node used in this asymmetric region, mainly as weaving pair. And we know that face texture requires the use of several types of knots and different techniques of new texture, creating available elegance in the shape and color of the face.
3) 2) Absence of the program or training required to improve the level of knowledge of weavers on various techniques of texture. Today, as in the past, in the Nain, weavers, only learn the texture from their masters without any manipulation in their style.
4) 2) The lack of supervision of designers on the texture process: In Nain, designers often do not have any supervision after making designs, and there is practically no relationship between designers and weavers, and this is due to the lack of knitting with the correct form and color of critical motifs such as faces, Causing major problems
5) 2) The only economic attitude, toward the carpet issue in Nain culture: in this city, the lack of industrial, agricultural and livestock fields in the region has relied on the regional economy on art and industry of carpet, and in such a situation, only with the market Sales and value added to the extent necessary, there is no need to make a change in the basis and other stages of production.
Despite the fact that the design of the Nain carpets is an indication, if we do not know the true identity of this carpet, we will violate it. This type of coloring, which is generally achieved through natural and vegetable colors and by the skillful painters on this carpet, is completely recognizable from carpets in other parts of Iran, especially rustic color and rural carpets and dense paints of carpets of Tabriz and even Isfahan.
The color characteristics of the Nain carpets, which owes a major part to its reputation, is a colorful background of bright and opaque kind that, with its elegancy and precision in its texture, gives a striking relaxation to the dense figures and traditional twist. If we assume this quality as one of the main causes of the influence of the Nain carpet in the world markets, perhaps the psychological interpretation of this is that the beautiful, relaxing colors and dream type of Nain carpet, somehow affect the excitement erosion of today`s life.
Given the fact that a Nain carpet is lacking age or at least a documentary evidence that justifies the reasons for this type of coloring, we can say, this quality can be attributed to the sensational calm that feels in the space of this small town.
Nain's carpet is one of the most brilliant manifestations of the use of traditional and natural color and owes its great contribution to this quality. However, it must be admitted that the carpet is also, for reasons that might be the inevitability or unaware painters, has opened its workshops and painting furnace, to various industrial known and unknown colors.
Painting style with natural and traditional colors with slight difference, is similar to other carpet weaving centers, which have traditional dyeing and, with some of the chemical paints used as auxiliary, still natural colors of the region, dominate. The number of colors used in the carpet are 11 main colors and 4 sub-colors, as follow:
Cream, open khaki color, dark khaki color, brown, jujube color, indigo (dark blue), azure, blue garlic, open blue color (sky blue), lacquer, gray-beige
Aquamarine, golden rod, Green, copper- Pink
The main natural ingredients which used to get the color are: pomegranate skin, walnut skin, rhubarb, mignonette, grapevine leaf, cochineal, and usually the azure, which is industrial, is used for blue and azure colors. For the yellow color, they use mignonette and for the green, mignonette and azure are used. The color of the gray is obtained from the pomegranate, and orange is obtained from the mignonette mixture with rhubarb.
The cochineal in the past has had a lot of usage in Nain carpet and now it is also used to some extent because of its reputation. Auxiliary material for dyeing wool pile of carpets is acetic acid (In the past, lemon`s skin, dried lemon, and BLACK KASHK. Potassium Alum is used for dent. Because of the high cost and lack of golden rod, the use of chemical colors as auxiliary or original form has become commonplace in obtaining lacquer color, and it is not far from the logic that, this time, tendency of transparent and ruby color from the use of golden rod in the past, dragged Nain's carpets to red coffee.
The application of colors in the color combination of Nain carpet:
Dark beige (Khaki)
Mainly in strings and in the wrong maps as background
Mainly on the sidelines and strings
strings and carpet`s background
Blue Garlic, figures and carpet background
Strings and carpet background
Strings and carpet`s background
Strings and carpet`s background
Strings and carpet`s background
In Nain, unlike many other parts of the country, carpets do not comply with certain dimensions and the carpet of this area is produced in a very diverse size.
As you can see, dimensions in the Nain carpet are not subject to any fixed principle, and this is one of the characteristics of the carpet in this area.
According to the above description, it is impossible to designate a specific design for a given dimension (in Nain carpet) by the designer and on the map, and designers only determine the dimensions of the map based on the knot's threat in terms of width and length of the carpet, and the manufacturer can download the said map, based on specific sections on the following chart: 4 fold, 6 tuple and 9 layers. Thus, according to the plan, unit of product with dimensions and number and various types are produced, and also in each of these types of flakes, by changing the density of warps and according to personal style, can produce, carpets with different dimensions and density (numbers) with a fixed map and a chart.
The common dimensions of the Nain`s carpet
90 × 60
120 × 90
180 × 120
200 x 120
200 x 130
210 x 130
230 × 150
280 x 170
280 × 180
300 x 200
330 × 220
400 × 300
430 × 300
Nowadays, in the parts and villages of the Nain`s suburbs, such as TUDASHK, where the best carpets are woven, in other parts of the province of Isfahan, including ARDESTAN and BIYABANAK, and even distant areas such as TABAS (KHORASAN state) and Qazvin, carpets are produced in accordance with the design and technique of Nain texture and delivered to the awaiting and enthusiastic markets.
What is woven in the southern, eastern and northern villages of Nain is precisely within the scope of cultural influence of the Nain carpet. When this carpet moves from KHOR to TABAS, KASHMAR and SABZEVAR, it gradually disappears from the quality.
In BAFRUN, JESHUGHAN, TUDASHK ZAFRE (in the village of MARSHYNAN) and JANDAG, carpets are woven with high quality. But in the areas of KHOR, ARDIB, GARMEH and MEHRJAN, carpets are getting down in quality. The quality of the carpet is low, from KHOR to the TABAS, due to use of poor quality of wool, color and also pair weaving.
In FAROKHI village, ARDIB and ARUSAN, people have average carpet weaving, but the best carpet is in the area of JANDAG, where silk carpets are also woven.
The villages around Nain on NATANZ route, such as JASHUGHAN CHU (GASHKU, Rahim Abad, VARZANEH, HAZANABAD, USHEN BADAFSHAN, little JOSHAGHAN, MILAJERD, KOSHKUYEH SAGHZI and MAZRAE SHUR are generally carpet weavers.
As you move from the village of KHOR, the natural impoverishment of the region, along with cultural factors, affects the quality of carpet weave, from which we can mention to low quality of wool and a pair weaving.
In TUDASHK area, dyeing is also common, but in recent years, the use of chemicals colors along with golden rod color has also become widespread in these areas, which could be one of the reasons for tendency of light and ruby colors which gained from golden rod to brown color.
Unfortunately, nowadays, carpets are produced by Nain style, throughout Iran. As a result of the investigations, we came to the following conclusions on the causes of this happenings:
Nain producers: In other words, because of the high production cost in Nain (weavers' wages), Nain producers moved to other parts of the country to arrange for cheap labor forces, and they have been taught Nain`s way, by spending less and they are getting more value added. This has brought about the familiarity of other parts of the country with Nain carpet weaving and eventually production in these areas.
Nain`s carpet color limit: Because of the limited color in Nain's carpet, its texture does not need more care (for color recognition) and the beginner weavers also have the ability to paint it.
The use of common and familiar blocks in figures of Nain`s carpets: Relative familiarity throughout the country with conventional designs (with very low sensitivity) in Nain carpet, has facilitated its implementation.
Added value: Added value of Nain`s carpet, has a higher rate, compare to production of other areas with the same conditions, and this has led to the tendency of other areas to produce this type of product.
Market sale: In fictional divisions of different areas of Iran, on the basis of market sale`s rate, Nain`s carpet (especially in the past) enjoyed special s status and placed in the first row.
Nain`s carpet extent, even more than before, created conditions and problems in the field of carpet weaving in the region and the country, which include:
1- Supply exceeds demand, resulting in mass production of Nain`s carpet style in the country, the supply of this product is more than demand and this cause problems that includes:
falling prices, according to economic principles, if the supply of a commodity exceeds the demand for it, the price of the item drops in a situation in which the rate of finished product fixed and perhaps in many cases, it rises.
Losing market: as a result of increase in supply and excessive repetition, willingness and desire of the buyers decreases, and thus it leads to lose the market.
2- Inability in producing Nain`s carpet, in other parts of the country: the geographical conditions of the Nain region, including weather, the amount of moisture in the air, the chemical composition of water and even vegetation and fauna of the area, caused in certain quality in Nain` rug, so achieving this quality in other regions of Iran, due to changes in the above conditions is impossible.
3- Quality decrease of products: with the rise of production and lack of experts to determine the best quality products (domestically and abroad) and lack of buyers to recognize the quality of the product and also due to the fact that producing desirable products requires the initial cost and more time, and therefore has higher finished price, and this was the cause for manufacturers (due to the absence of a significant difference in the rate of sales) not to tend to produce desirable products (the ancient carpet Nain). And all these things have eventually degraded the quality of Nain`s rug.