The Muhammad’s hegira; the end of Jews era (3)
“The worst enemy to people, who believed in, is Jews and heathens”.
Researches about the battles of the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and Jews are not that much as researches about the battles of Badr and Uhud in history books. In ordinary history writing, battles of the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and Jews have always been less important; while all heathens were destroyed in battles of Uhud, Badr, and Khandagh, Jews were fighting with the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) till the end of Muhammad’s life. Jew’s operations are complicated. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had a lot of confrontations with Jews since his birth till his departure when he had prepared Usama’s army for the battle of Mu’tah, however the historians have not analyzed them carefully.
One of Jew’s tactics was that they hit Islam religion but in the end they pretended to be injured by Islam. In order to prove this matter, it is adequate to analyze sensitive moments of operations of Bani Ghingha ,Bani Nazir, and Bani Ghorayzeh and Jew’s reactions.
This depicts that Jews were so subtle and sharp in managing the operations, while a hasty manner is evident in heathen’s actions. According to this subject, blaming heathens solely in complicated mental and physical actions against the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) would just confuse us and deform our historic analysis; so for achieving the truth in history, we must consider unity of heathens, Jews, and feudists and we must prevent from one sided analysis.
Bani Ghingha, the first Jewish rebellionBani Ghingha was the first Jewish group which neglected its oath with the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and fought with Muslims.
Bani Ghingha betrayed openly after the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) return from Badr, in Shawwal month in second year of Hegira. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) looked for them and in Gingha Bazar he told them: you are aware that I am the messenger oh God. So believe in Islam before you find yourselves in an event like Badr and take care. Jews said: O Muhammad, do not be proud of what you did with your folk in Badr since they were not real warriors, and if we start a fight with you, then you will see that there would be no warriors like us. This tribe which was the bravest tribe had no cultivation and they were goldsmiths. Meanwhile, a Jewish man from Bani Ghingha, tacked an Ansar woman’s skirt to ground in bazar. The woman who did not noticed yet, stood up and her naked back was exposed to them and Jews laughed at her. A Muslim man standing there killed that Jew. Then Jews attacked him and killed the Muslim. Jews betrayed their oath with the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and called for a battle and settled in their castles. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) decided to answer this betrayal powerfully. Muslims surrounded them in their castles for fifteen days, and Bani Ghingha surrendered finally. The messenger of God (peace be upon him and his family) commanded to lock them and he tended to punish them severely and even some historians have said that he decided to kill them all. But his helpers got involved and interceded and asked his forgiveness. So they just had to emigrate and leave there. For instance, Abd al-allah ibn Abi after captivating Bani Ghingha came to the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and asked him to be kind with his Jewish confederates. When the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) did not notice him, he grabbed his armor daringly and repeated his demand violently. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) said: leave me, but Abd al-Allah insisted more on Bani Ghingha’s freedom and said: do you want to kill four hundred armored men and three hundred unarmed men who helped me in important situations? The messenger of God (peace be upon him and his family) when found out this, needed to release Bani Ghingha; of course he confiscated their properties and deported them.
Bani Nazir, the greedy battle of JewsBani Nazir betrayed their oath after the battle of Uhud and return of Islam army to Medina, in order to kill the prophet (peace be upon him and his family). This battle was in a very critical situation and people were not ready for a war. The principal point in this confrontation is the role of Jewish confederates in Medina who encouraged them to pull off. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) commanded and the Islam army moved to Bani Nazir’s castle. Jews went inside their castles when they saw the army. Islam’s corps surrendered the castle and it lasted for a while. One of the reasons why was disconnecting Jews and Medina’s feudists who promised to cooperate with Jews. Hence Jews surrendered after six days of surrounding –based on another narration after fifteen days- and destruction of outer buildings of castle and no help from feudists; under this condition to be safe and not killed after coming out and to be able to take everything but weapons with them. When Jews were moving, they forced their wives to play tambourine and sing along to pretend not to feel abject.
During migration, Medina’s feudists convoyed them in sadness. In Bani Ghanam’s company, Zeyd ibn Rafae secretly said to Abd al-Allah ibn Abi: I am worried and afraid of nonexistence of Bani Nazir in Medina, but they are going toward wealth and honor and tall castles which are not like here.
Historians and analysts believe that verses tow to fifteen of surah al-Hashr is about Bani Nazir’s occasion; in a way that Ibn Abbas has titled this surah “Bani Nazir”.
Khandagh, Jew’s fire, heaten’s battleA council including the grandees of Jewish Bani Nazir ans Bani Wael wetn to Mecca and encouraged Abu Sufyan to collect warriors. Their excuse for encouraging him was heathen’s victory in the battle of Uhud. After the battle of Uhud, heathens who were disappointed because of the battle of Badr, became hopeful again; they hoped to eliminate the prophet (peace be upon him and his family). This council also went to other tribes of the Peninsula and made their minds and united them with themselves.
Jewish Bani Nazir also promised to cooperate with heathens in previous battle, but they did the opposite, however this time, they promised to cooperate at the same time. After Jews commuting a lot, an army with ten thousands of heathens who were from all over the Arabian Peninsula, moved to Medina. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) gathered Medina’s people and asked their opinions. People who made an awful consult in the battle of Uhud last year, said: that one time telling our opinions was enough; we will accept whatever you say. Salman said: O the messenger of God, in Iran when an army attacks to a city and human force and war equipment of two sides are not equal, people will moat. Thus, the battle changes to erosive one and the possibility of enemy’s retreat increases. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) analyzed his opinion as a wisely idea and accepted it.
It must be mentioned that Medina city is surrounded by western and eastern range of Harre, and in south, southern Harre and Mount Eer were like natural obstacles for this city; therefore, the only side unprotected was northern side which Mount Uhud was far away from that. And this is the reason why heathens came to Uhud yesteryear. Since Uhud was far away from city, they moated between Mount Uhud and Mount Sela. The moat soil was moved to Medina side and three thousands army of Muslims located in foothill of Mount Sela exposing to moat and heathen’s army. This military arrangement shows how the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) applied military tactics.
The enemy realized that this plan is not an Arabian one. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) had mobilized three thousands warriors in Medina. At this time, Bani Ghoreyzeh betrayed their oath with the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and called for a war. Muslims were no longer safe even in Medina; because Jews were invading people on their ways in the city. This was the worst betrayal of Jews to the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and the way they abused the prophet (peace be upon him and his family)’s kindness and showed their great hatred to Islam.
The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) mentioned: everyone who passes must be armed. They also gathered women in castles and set Hassan ibn Thabit the poet as their guardian. One of the days, one Jew was rambling around one of the castles with the purpose of invasion; Safiyyah who was the prophet (peace be upon him and his family)’s aunt asked Hassan to protect them. Hassan said: I did not attend the war in order not to fight. I am not a war man. So Safiyyah got Hassan’s sword and killed that Jew!
This surrounding lasted for twenty days; on the other hand the inner situation of Mednia got hazardous. The situation was so tough that feudists started complaining and made rumor of people leaving.
“When the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is a disease said: "Allah and His Messenger (peace be upon him and his family) promised us nothing but delusions!" and when a group of them said: "O people of Yathrib! We cannot stay here, go back!" And a band of them asked for permission of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) saying: "Truly, our homes lie open to the enemy." But that was no true. They just wished to flee”.
These were the words told behind the bulwark. Three principal factors made the situation as a critical one: the February cold; hunger and faintness after holy Ramadan; because they had moated in Ramadan; and the fear of ten thousands army of enemy with equipment coming to Muslim’s front. Fear and cold and hunger, would destroyed the army. Of course in the opposite side, heathens were in a horrible disaster. They had anticipated a short war and they had little purveyance with them, but the war had lasted long; in addition, they also felt scared, cold, and fainted. God mentioned:
“Don’t be weak in the pursuit of the enemy; if you are suffering hardships then surely, they are suffering, too, but you have a hope from Allah that for which they hope not, and Allah is Ever All-Knowing, All-Wise”.
Amr ibn Abdu and some other Arabian heroes, passed from a narrow spot of moat. Ali ibn Abi Tlib (peace be upon him) with several other men, got to the spot fast and closed it. Amru was standing on the field between moat and Mount Sale and yelling and asking for a competitor. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) told his helpers: who would fight with him? Everyone denied but Ali (peace be upon him). The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) said: this is Amru, sit down. Maybe someone else would go, however no one dared to. According to Ibn Abi l-Hadid words, Ali (peace be upon him) went to fight with him and the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) said: today whole the belief stood against whole heresy. Amru was killed by Ali (peace be upon him) in front of Muslims and heathens surprised eyes. The enemy became dispirited by losing Amru.
The role of prophet (peace be upon him and his family)’s infiltrators among heresy armyThe most important individuals of Kureysh in this battle were Ghatafan and Bani Ghoreyzeh. Abu Sufyan decided to start the battle at the same time with them anyway. Naeem bin Masood Ashjaee went to the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) overnight and testified to Islam and said: I am a Muslim whom they are not aware of and I know whole these tribes who are here as your enemy. If you have a command, I will accomplish. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) said: go and disunite them.
Naeem went to Abu Sufyan and said: I have heard that Bani Ghoreyzeh is regretful of their betraypl to the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and they have sent him a message that we will take ten men of Kureysh’s grandees hostage and we give them to you so that our oath would be undertaken again and you be satisfied by us. Naeem did his mission a perfect way amd then he went to Bani Ghoreyzeh who settled the battle, and he told them: if heathens start the bettle and fail in it, they would escape and go to Mecca; but you would be captivated and the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) will kill you all. They said: so what should we do? He said: ask several grandees of heathens to come to you and fight along with you to be sure that they would not betray you because of their friends. He gave Ghatafani the same speech and went back to Islam’s camp secretly. Abu Sufyan decided on attack on the Saturday night in Shawwal month of fifth year of Hegira and sent several agents to Bani Ghoreyzeh’s castle and said: this is not our living area, our animals are perishing; be prepared for tomorrow to finish the battle. Bani Ghoreyzeh’s admiral said: tomorrow is Saturday, we Jews do not do anything during this day because a group of our ancestors did something at the same day and they were damned and tortured by God; moreover, we would fight under one condition, to have several grandees of yours as hostages with us. Abu Sufyan thought that Naeem was right. He is on our side and Bani Ghoreyzeh tend to betray us, so he decided to fight against the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) without them. Hence heathen’s army hesitated and the battle was postponed for a day.
God’s aidThere was a storm during the night. The storm moved all soils to heathens, destroyed their tents, and fires were extinguished. Heathens sheltered behind their shields. The percussion of sands and shields made a horrifying noise. Heathens were terrified so much. Abu Sufyan who did not achieve his goal, gathered army’s leaders to decide and finish everything.
The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) asked his helpers to go to enemy’s front and bring some news. No one was volunteer. So he called Hazyfa and said: you hear me calling and you ignore to respond?! Hazyfa said: fear and cold and hunger caused it. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) said: go and bring some news. When you are back, you talk to no one but me. Hazyfah went among heathen’s army and saw a huge tent which there was a big fire inside it. Then he saw Abu Sufyan shivering and talking: O Koreysh warriors we are not able to fight with men of sky, but if this battle is with men of earth, we would fight and then he said: notice people round you and identify them not to be a spy. Hazyfah was standing between Amr ibn al-As and Muavyah. He asked the man next to him immediately: who are you? He said: Amr ibn al-As. He asked the man on his left: who are you? He responded: Muavyah, and he was not identified by this tactic and no one asked him a thing. Then Abu Sufyan commanded Khalid ibn Walid that you or I stay there for bringing weaker ones and the rest of them ride their animals and escape. Hazyfah came back and told the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) whatever he had heard. The enemy’s army had escaped and the battle was finished. But the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) did not tell this news to others till the morning because there was a possibility that Abu Sufyan had identified Hazyfah and had said some wrong information on purpose so that Muslims would have abandoned the region and then Abu Sufyan and his army would attack. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) advised Hazyfah about this point and kept Muslims behind the moat until heathens absolute escape.
The harsh punishment of Jewish Bani Ghoreyzeh’s betrayalAfter enemy escaped, when Muslims were awarded, by the command of God, Muslims immediately went to Bani Ghoreyzeh who invaded Medina during enemy’s attack and betrayed their oaths. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family)’s military surrounded Bani Ghoreyzeh’s castles. This surrounding lasted for fifteen days. After Bani Ghoreyzeh feeling deadened, they asked the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) to send Abū Lubāba ibn ʿAbd al-Mundhi who was their Oosi confederate to them so that they can consult with him. Abu Lubaba went inside the Jews distracted colony. They first reviewed their aids to Ous people during pre-Islam wars and declared their regret of betraying their oath with the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and then asked him: shall we give up to Muhammad? He said: Yes; but he pointed to his throat at the same time which meant that giving up equal death. He immediately understood his betrayal and came out of the Bani Ghoreyzeh’s castle regretfully. He went to Masjid and fastened himself to a column and recanted. He had fastened himself for seven or fifteen days and was repeating: I shall die or my retraction should be accepted. Her daughter unfastened him only for urgent situations and saying prayer; until God forgave him by sending a verse. Abu Lubaba’s mistake might have prevented Jews from giving up but by Ali (peace be upon him)’s threat they came out of castles after about a month. Ali (peace be upon him) went closer with Zubayr and yelled: O belief corps, I swear to God, I would suffer whatever Hamzah suffered or I would conquer the castle. This is the moment Bani Ghoreyzeh panicked and surrendered. After Bani Ghoreyzeh’s surrender, Ous people came to Muhammad (peace be upon him and his family) and said: Bani Ghoreyzeh were our confederates; forgive them the same as you forgave Bani Ghingha. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) said: would Sa'd ibn Mu'adh (Oos’s leader) judge them? They said: yes. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) commanded to call Sa’d ibn Mu’adh. Sa’d had got injured and his hand’s artery was cut during the Khandagh (moat) battle and he was not in a healthy mood, however they called him. First he asked: will you accept my judge? They said: yes. Then he commanded to kill Bani Ghoreyzeh and captivate their wives and children and take their properties and give them to Muslims. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) mentioned: this is God’s command about them, too. Sa’d died because of his serious injury after judging. Jews could survive by testifying to Islam verbally; they not only rejected testify, but also did not ask the prophet (peace be upon him and his family)’s forgiveness which could have rescued them. When they brought Ka'b ibn Asad, the grandee of Bani Ghoreyzeh to execute him, he said to the prophet (peace be upon him and his family): I would have obeyed you if Jews did not accuse me of fear. Benash ibn Gheys said: even if I was released, I would have returned to my folk’s shambles to be killed like them. Zubeyr ibn Bata who was forgiven by the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) even without testify, said: life is no longer good without grandees of Jews; take me to the shambles and kill me by your swords. Some Jews were released without testifying because they were not mature enough or because of intersession of Muslims.
So the condition of freedom was not testifying but it was claiming regret of betrayal and they could continue living. But they did not do it and preferred death over it. Undoubtedly, if they were alive, they would have continued conspiracy and spoil and rebellion against Islamic young rule and no wise man would tolerate such an enemy.
Peace, the victory bridgeThe prophet (peace be upon him and his family) saw himself between three sides of Jews, heathens and feudists triangle who were surrounding Muslims in North, South and inside Medina. In this situation he did a precise action to be safe from southern side for a while. He decided to go to Umrah Hajj. Heathens were told that the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) is coming to Mecca. Since heathens were not prepared to fight, they sent a council to the prophet (peace be upon him and his family). He said: we tend to Umrah. They said: we would not allow you. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) said: we will enter by force. they said: we would fight with you. All helpers said: O messenger of God, we are with you to death. Heathens, who were not ready for war, sent another council and said: now it is not time to fight. If you enter Mecca, our prestige would be destroyed. Return this year and come back later in next year. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) saw a perfect opportunity and he signed the treaty of not invading for ten years with heathens; thus, the most powerful enemy of the prophet (peace be upon him and his family)-heathens- got out of enemy triangle.
According to this treaty, Koreysh and Muslims undertook not to invade or start a fight against each other in order to settle the situation down and general peace would exist in Arabia.
Muslims of Arabia could spread and chant their religious words freely and Koreysh had no right to tease, bother, or invade them.
In treaty of Hudaybyah, most helpers, especially one of them, was strongly disagree with compromise. He got angry and told the prophet (peace be upon him and his family): are you truly the messenger of God? He said: yes. He responded: are not we Muslims and are not hey atheists? The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) mentioned: yes. He said: so why should we suffer such abjectness? The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) said: I do whatever I am missioned to do. That man upraised and said to other helpers: did he promise us to enter Mecca? So why cannot we enter and should suffer such abjectness? If others agreed me, I would have never suffered such thing.
Could this severe attitude of his be considered as his prejudice or should we assume that he was related to them and knew the precise plan of the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) about heathens?
Muslims had found out that Jewish conspiracies would be ceased only by uprooting spoil and immorality. After the treaty of Hudaybyah and Muslims comforting about heresy front, the six thousands military of Muslims went to Kheyber be the prophet (peace be upon him and his family)’s command. The battle of Kheyber was in early Muharram of seventh year of Hegira. Military actions are forbidden in Haram (forbidden) monthes in Islam, but defense is allowed. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) moving to Kheyber in Muharram month, in a forbidden month, depicts that this movement has been defensive; while history introduces this action of his as an invasion. There were lots of tenacious castles and military equipment in Kheyber and because of these, Jews assumed that they can fail the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) or at least slowing the development of Islam movement. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family)’s helpers conquered all castles one by one and sometimes they were fighting for days to open a castle. While Muslims achieved to the last castle, named Nazar, the battle was over. This castle was in peak of a Mountain and had a tall wall which there was a moat under it and it was impossible to cross it. After lots of struggles and failure, the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) gave the battle flag to Ali (peace be upon him) and he called it as a victory for Muslims. He pulled the door and picked it by his strong bare hands and used the door as a shield and threw it on the moat so that warriors could pass through it.
Change of battle
MoutehIn Rabi al-Avval in eighth year of Hegira, the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) sent a propagandizing group including sixteen men named “Zaat-e Islah” from Shaam’s fields. People of that area not only rejected Islam’s invitation but they attacked those sixteen men and killed them all. One of them who got injured and could secretly come back overnight, passed this news to the prophet (peace be upon him and his family). The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) sent a courier to Basri governor of there at the same time. Ghosanian people killed him the moment they identified him as the prophet (peace be upon him and his family)’s courier. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) sent a three thousands army to Mouteh by leadership of Ja’far ibn Abi Talib and Zayd ibn Harithah and Abdullah ibn Rawahah In Jamdi al-Avval of that year. They encountered an army of Roman warriors and their confederate tribes.
After the treaty of Hudaybyah, Jews lost their most powerful side and they had to use their final facility. This was the second time in history that Jews asked for Rome’s aid- world power of the time- in their battle with a prophet. The first time they used Roman Pilatus against Christ (peace be upon him). This time they asked Romans help again when they disappointed of heathens. Romans settled their corps in Mouteh which was a thousand kilometers away from Medina. Jews changed the battle square after continuous failures in development of Islam and its territory and after losing heathens who could help them destroy the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and Islam which was spreading fast. With one hundred Romans in the area, no serious battle started in Mouteh. Moreover, the small number of killed men (only the three leaders who were chosen by the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and five other Muslims) and also devolving the leadership to Khalid ibn Walid by Muslims in this battle is very suspicious.
Considering these points and all evens which caused Mouteh battle ( that are mentioned at the beginning of this part) we can conclude that Roman front’s purpose has been examination of new government of south, but Jews used this situation and by cooperation of heathens and feudists wanted to push the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and his helpers away from Medina so that putsch behind the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and then attack to Medina by heathens aid, in order to elapse the Islamic government capital city.
The great governor of Islam was aware and connected to revelation source and he neutered the enemy’s plan and the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) sent the corps without himself.
TabukAfter conquer of Mecca and Taeef, Rome gathered another huge military in a borderer line region which was closer than Mouteh. The prophet (peace be upon him and his family) recognized that this time he should go there with a huge army (thirteen thousands men). Before Islam corps arriving to Tabuk, Romans had left and Muslims returned without any invasion. While Muslims were coming back, enemy targeted the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) in Aghabah split, and they also targeted Ali (peace be upon him) at the same time. It could be concluded that again there has been a connection between Jews and feudists and Jews were still looking for putsch plan in order to rule over Islam base.
But again the prophet (peace be upon him and his family) neutered their plans by substituting Ali (peace be upon him) as himself in Medina.