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A review on family sociology (2)

Various theories regarding the primary motivation for starting a family have been proposed. Some people believe that the basis for family is derived from "service"; for example:
A review on family sociology (2)
A review on family sociology (2)

 

Translated by: Ahmad Ismaeil Abadi
Source: rasekhoon.net







 

The Motivation for family establishment
Various theories regarding the primary motivation for starting a family have been proposed. Some people believe that the basis for family is derived from "service"; for example: Khajeh Nasir-Al-Din Tusi in his work "Naseri ethics" with emphasis on the principle of "employment" refers to the socialization of man in all kinds of cooperation and says: Species, plants and animals each of them help all kinds of people, but the man does not help them: "Just as humans need to all three types of elements and compounds , also he needs his own kind so that he can assist the "service" of one another. All scholars who have turned toward utopia, have emphasized on families and its vital importance for society, in the sense that the family is responsible for reproductive function of maintenance, training and socializing the children so that by this method, the people of community get ready to do diverse and more complex duties and responsibilities in society. Family plays a major role in forming viewpoints, values and beliefs and affects the relations between the individual and social institutions. Some psychoanalysts such as "Freud" have tried to pull all models and sexual desires of men and women confined in their sexual instincts on the contrary to this notion and idea, some other psychologists have called the love between spouses sometimes "love" and sometimes "feeling". Jacques Hadfield psychoanalyst, PhD, states Freud's interpretation of the word love as: "Freud believes that the meaning of love is summarized in the sexual instinct and in truth destroys the word of love, and instead it's sexual instinct and the difference between instinct rarely affects men and women, but only says " the man is sexually stimulated but the woman by love. And then comments on" My opinion is that love can not be a simple instinct as a reproductive instinct with anger or fear but, it is emotionally or in fact it is a set of emotions towards something or someone in human is created for example patriotism as the name implies, it is a feeling that all the excitement go around our country. In this way, love is a feeling in which excitements, respect, courage in defense of the beloved, softness and tenderness, especially in mother-to-child love, acceptance and admiration of desires, all working closely ". Alameh, Morteza Motahari, says "it is wonderful that some persons can not distinguish between lost and kindness and they assumed that something which connect the couples to each other is just lost while, it is the feeling of implementation and overuse that is, the same thing which connects the man to drinking, dishes and clothes and they do not know that in creation and nature Besides selfishness and self-interest, there are other interests of selfish interests, there are other interests that are not as result of selfishness but is resulted by direct interest to none. Some experts, have considered the basis for family establishment "respect to social contracts" and some "reproductive" but, what Holy Quran has emphasized on that is the" theory of calmness". The Qur'an emphasizes comfort with his wife and starting a family. The Holy Quran says you seek relax in your wives. The young boys and girl feels calmness after marriage. Then says: "God has brought kindness, friendship and love between couples," that is, the basis for interaction with each other should be based on friendship, love, kindness and mercy. Thus, the family focal by love and friendship will be a place for sedation and the "rest" for both partners. This Approach openly confess to this reality of family that if the family is empties of love and friendship, its foundation is becoming weak and slippery and it is likely to collapse and break therefore; this is one of the major factors that has put modern Western families into a decline and destruction. The condition for couple satisfaction during the marriage, in customary and religious teachings of Islam, aside from other consultations, as if considered this issue that marriage without the consent and the mutual romantic relationship is like a Building remains that has been founded in the storm's steep path . So, it is necessary that the first foundation stone of this building, based on the foundation of love and passion - not of course be – transient facade Love and fleeting to be founded. However, in the ups and downs of married life also this elixir of survival and sustainability, not only to be protected and preserved, but also based on generously and mutual couple moral recognition to each other and the birth of children, this love and friendship is becoming deep-rooted and more determined to build holy family foundation with further strength. However, increasing emphasis and guidelines of religious texts and the generous interaction and friendly relationship of husband and wife can be considered as a witness on this fundamental issue. Islamic tradition censures the least talk and behavior that creates disloyalty either by wife or husband. Another important feature of the family is child birth and child rearing function. Children are learning in the family to follow the way of life in society, and in fact parents are the transformers of social ideals to children. Therefore, kids are being socialized at home. Socialization in the family is a subject more than just the issue of household education that learning a few rules and accept or rejection of family sanctions. This process is actually beginning of internalizing of community culture by the family that children is not being separated from will be with him or her throughout all the lifetime. In other words, the person in the family, including family norms, internalizes the society norms and becomes part of his personality. In addition to, how to deal with kid shapes the formation and development of his personality. Many sociologists have claimed that the impact of childhood experiences is in a way that some of its aspects and behaviors converted into "fixed or secondary nature".
Characteristics and family roles
Generally, each social group including family has some roles and features that lack of attention to them causes false evaluation and incorrect analysis of that group. Therefore; it is required to care about these characteristics.
1- Interaction: A Group member can have mutual relationship with each others and the behavior of each member can have a potential impact on other people and make them to have an appropriate reaction.
2- Structure: Each group has relatively stable patterns in their relationships, and the same patterns identify the database of individuals as well as their roles. The structure that ruling on entire family shows life policies, roles and functions of the family. For example the patterns of family life of nomads, outlining the specific roles and functions, that may vary with the structure of a rural life.
3- Size: The size and quantity scope of a small group is effective in determining roles and duties of the group and till its size is unknown, its structure is not fully formed or is not recognizable. For example, the extended family to increase its quantity has a different structure than the central family.
4- Ideal: Each group comes up to achieve some goals. So, the Objectives for forming a group are called the aspiration of that group. Since the ideals are away from diversity and plurality, therefore, the group distinctions from each other is dependant on their ideals. However, the goals that led to the creation, perpetuation and family dynamics will form the ideals of the family. It is clear that unity of the goals and aspirations will lead to sharing of the families. As its diversity and change, takes unity and substantial share of the family away.
5: Solidarity: Based on the interaction and sharing of ideals, convergence and solidarity is created and to understand a group , we should consider the correlation and communication of the members together. For example, a family that has arisen on the basis of shared vision and enjoys an accepted engagement, its solidarity is more than the family which lack such a feature.
6- Change: the Group is subject to change. Identifying agents of change, areas and its territories as well as the decision making to accept the change, all and all are variables that a group may be encountered. Families is not excluded from this feature, too but, the selection of a new elements, and changes in various areas of family depends on factors such as ideals, natural environment, social needs (such as the social division of labor based on the complexity of the structure of society), etc. What is necessary for every family, whether urban, rural and tribal are interactive elements, ideals and solidarity. In Islamic society and culture, the family is regarded in a way that ideals, engagement and solidarity of its members draw its tasks and roles. This ideal is not credit-based logos but through a mutual effort between two opposite sex to get the inner peace is resulted and gives a fruit of love and friendship. (verse) And it is of His signs that created couples of your own generations to get you calm by resorting to her and established love and mercy between you. The Interaction that pursue this ideal and other goals is based on the "Covenant thick" While you were taken an emphatic promise. The requirement for this spiritual indicator is that all roles and tasks related to a couple have great depth and concentration and is derived from the heart. So, the Convergence and solidarity pillars of the family, that is the couple is so far that each without the other lack covers and loses its natural setting. (Verse) They are clothing for you and you're a dress for them". So, Man in keeping woman and woman in keeping man should be effortful and this intensity of attention to each other, brings them solidarity and convergence.

The Family functions

Sociologists by historical look at family and its contemporary developments in their communities have mentioned roles and functions as follows:
1- Regulating sexual behavior: no society allows people to have random sexual relationship so, Marriage and family system provides a means of regulating sexual behavior. And determines who with whom, in what circumstances should have sexual relationship.
2- Members replacement: a society without having a system to replace military members from generation to generation is not able to survive. The Family provides a stable and institutionalized opportunity through which such a replacement takes place
3- Socialization: People would not want to be a perfect man unless they become sociable and family is the first and most important factor in socialization that begins from the birth moment.
4- Maintenance: people (whether young, old or disabled) need warmth, food, shelter and family care and the family provides an environment in which all these requirements is provided
5- Determining social status: family background is the single and most important element of our position in society. We not only inherit our material possessions but also our social base from directing family. We belong to the same racial or ethnic group or social class or often the same religion and faith that our parents belong.
6- Emotional support: men need love, nutrition, intimacy and. The family is the first social context in which emotional needs can be met and the deepest personal feelings to be expressed. Of course, the family is the only possible means to supply them, but nevertheless, the family so effectively satisfies them that in each culture shoulder the first responsibility to provide them.
Duties and functions of the family as a headline:
1. Seal Association and affection,
2. Setting sexual demands and satisfying sexual needs of men and women,
3. Generation production
4 training family children personality development,
5. The transfer of cultural and religious heritage to the next generation
6- Socialization (acculturation) or socialization of family children
7. Creating a sense of security for all family members and supporting them
8- Emotional functioning, ie, developing his emotional behaviors and family children
9. Determining social status (answering to the needs of family members)
10-respect for family members
11- Economic performance, labor, production, consumption and savings.
Despite the changes and developments has been established in human relations and social institutions, the need for institutional function of the family still has retained the central family and according to some sociologists the popularity of central family can be justified based on its unavoidable functions. Regardless of commenting western sociologists concerning roles and family functions, in Islamic society, the family has the following characteristics:
1- Producing generation and its survival
2- Settlement and psychic calm along with affection and love
3- Satisfying sexual desires
4- Training kids and normalizing them based on community values
5- co-operation in providing material and divine needs (like providing accommodation and live expense, preparing for marriage, assistance in meeting the basic needs of children and their families, helping parents and relatives, etc.) with assuming more responsibility for man (husband). So, some roles are manifestation of authority in the family affairs and some others are the manifestation of compassion and mercy and satisfying emotional and sexual needs and some other roles are responsible for some aspects of culture, education and knowledge of the family. Thus, each of the aforementioned features that offering them do not fit here.
Family relationship
Family is the position for the confluence of three relationships: the mutual father and mother-child relationship, blood relationship (relative relationship) and marriage (marital relationship). The relations as result of the role of wife and parents by the tasks, duties and their rights have been identified in the family. Children relationship with parents -mutually - and couple relations together and their rights and duties towards each other is accounted as the main important relationship in the family that in Holy Quran these two relations have been specially emphasized and will be discussed bellow.

Children relationship with parents

The important relationship that between man and man taken place is formative relationship of the child with parents; the duties children towards their parents have to fulfill. Thus, in the Holy Quran, the benchmark values on the parents are doing good deeds. In many verses has mentioned that children should respect and do good deeds for them and it is clear that how widespread the parents' right is on children so that you can rarely find such a right for them in other people in the community. There is some verse in Holy Quran that is so central and clarifies the importance of this issue. So, in 14th verses of "Logman" verse and 8th of "insect" respecting parents is juxtaposed to thanking of God. In 151 verse of Surah of Anam, the importance of kindness to parents immediately after the fight to Shrek in God before an important commands such as manslaughter sanctions and implementing the principles of justice has been noted that indicates its importance. Of course, in verse 15 of the same chapter and verse 8 of surah spider an exception is stated and it is mentioned that the relationship between man and his parents should never take precedence over his relationship with God; Children must resist negative pressures of the parents and maintain their strength and independence. (Verse) While they are Mushrek and they insist that convert you to idolaters; yet we should not mistreat them, but in the life your relationship "must be based on the good toward them. Verses 32-27 of Surah Maryam by referring to story of Prophet Jesus (PBUH) and refers to the importance of the mother position. Verses of 17 to 19 of Ahgaf chapter state the parents' right to the children and the future of people who disrespect their parents. Therefore, the verses of 74-67 of Surah Baqarah including stating the story cow of the Israelites, narrates the benefits of good deeds to parents that state both temporal and eternal happiness. The verses of 82 -79 Surah of Kahf also represents shortening of life due to harming parents. This verse also reflects the remaining of fathers' faith to their children.

The Couples' relationship with each other

The quality of the couple relationship is of issues that have been raised in the Quran regarding the family. Roman verse of 21 indicates the love link between couple innately. This verse means that just by achieving marital link genetically, the mercy and love of the people emerges. 187 Verse of Surah of Baqarah also refers to spiritual connection and its proximity to each other and the equality of men and women in this context.
As a result, men and women keep themselves away from deviations, cover imperfections of each other, give comfort to one another and each is regarded as luxury means for another besides, Verse 35 of Surah of the Parties refers to gender equality before God and female character. Among The Quranic verses has been referred to the rights and duties of men and women towards each other so, verse 228 of Surah of Baqarah also refers to mutual respect between men and women and their reciprocal rights. This verse states that, to the extent that women have duties, some legal rights have been defined for them and the Law and justice is for women as it is for men. **Family dimensions in the thought of theoreticians of humanities: The family has had a very high status in the eyes of the thinkers of the world and has analyzed it from different aspects. Each field of the humanities, according to its needs, has pursued the family and has examined part of it. However, investigating all aspects of the family from a different perspective is something very expensive and does not fit in this article, but we can have a passing look at in some theorists of Social Sciences.

A. Date

All historians and biographers believe that family is the most ancient group that due to the natural, social and emotional need of human has been formed and has a record as long as the history of human life on the earth. That’s why, man is civilized by nature and had to live in the community and, because God has created man and formed his physical structure in such a way that despite various physical and emotional abilities he or she has, always feeling a sort of need to people. This internal feeling causes a small community naming "family" formed in the life and number of persons at least two people to live together; the physical and psychological needs of human is funded in family environment and the spirit of cooperation and partnership between its members is produced in the same environment. After the establishment of the first family nucleus in the land, which according to religious texts and history, the character of Adam and Eve were its founder various stages on the family were passed and parallel to social developments have undergone many changes and developments. The Knowledge of history undertakes the study of family history and its evolution flow that how the Bedouin family changed into urban family or what factors caused the central family replaced by traditional family. However, the development of a family is regarded of major studies in science and hence, historians are examining it.

B. Sociology

Sociologists have long analyzed the family as a social institution, and they have always considered it as a social unit. Family of sociological point of view is the most fundamental social institution that in the formation of large structures of society and its productivity plays a crucial role. Because the social context is to some extend affected by the developments, and any deviation in the family space are necessarily reflected in society. In contrast, the family also reacts to changes in society. Hence, it can be said that there is a reciprocal relationship between the family and the community, and each affects the other. Presently a tendency in the field of sociology has emerged that examines the size of the family and its various aspects. This tendency created sociological studies of Frederick Le Play and German Wilhelm Heinrich Riehl and then by studies of other sociologists such as Emile Durkheim and Karl Marx was developed. Since the family has a crucial role in increasing the efficiency of the community and by social development can help social and economic development therefore, Sociologists are interested in the issues related to it. Family sociology approach based on the theory of "functionalism" studies family structure, the role of each members, relations among members, population and indices of growth or its decline, types of family width or central family and like this.

C. Law

Knowledge of law is one of the scientific knowledge and applicatory and common use rights all over the world and paid serious attention to family issues and has investigated it as civil law. Lawyers have developed various laws to regulate family affairs and, if necessary, be put into effect and so that they can possibly cease the family fall. The right of each family member, inheritance, marriage, divorce, alimony, child and spouse are among the topics that are addressed legally. The law is applied over other areas of human sciences and is connected with practical life of the people. However, Prosecution offices, public and private their subsets are regarded of centers that implement justice in the community. The Special courts of family struggles today are very busy and there they are involved in multiple judges to resolve family problems. In every country the judiciary with its follow-up effort, is law enforcement in the social environment and family. Thus, the family rights are one of the most important civil rights issues in every country.

D. Economy

Economists, in turn, have not lost sight of the family issues and have considered it as a unit of production and consumption. The family in strengthening the finance of the state and keep it plays an important role that is because the families make up the first economic groups and it provide labor on their farms and workshops, in particular, traditional extended families that often live in rural areas and almost all of its members, ranging from men and women, young and old, are engaged in production, such as agriculture and animal husbandry, production, distribution and consumption that as the key elements in the economics and all three are in direct contact with the family. Thus, the family of one hand is the active work force training and on the other hand, is accounted as a consumer unit, which national income should be divided fairly among families.
In terms of political economy, the government is responsible to supply the basic needs of the family and the state has duty to provide public housing and livelihoods for people. So, the government must create the conditions that households have sufficient purchasing power and supply their basic necessities without any problems. What's effective in this context is fairly distribution of resources that must be managed properly. Perhaps, many economic hardship created by mismanagement in the distribution of consumer goods. Today, one of the major economic issues regarding the family is the problem of "family growth" that many countries, especially developing countries, is faced with and have applied different approaches to harness the population.
Among the measures that have been partly successful, is planning to control the prevention of pregnant women. Advertising made in this regard has attracted the attention of families and have had a lot of impact in practice. The reason for this may be that the inhibition of birth due to reduction of pregnancy and parenting is compatible with the welfare of women and therefore; it has been widely welcomed. However, they can live with more convenience and comfort. In any case, the family due to several reasons, whether in theoretical or academic issues, has been the focus of economists.

f) Psychology

Although psychological approach analyzes human behavior and is trying to despite detecting abnormal behaviors, discover their causes them and to treat patients, but at the same time, studies the family from different viewpoints; because the family as an open system, is constantly evolving and changing. Family of psychological perspective, to keep its balance is always active in two aspects of "internalizing" and "externalizing ' that is despite coping with social change, grows all of its members desirably to physically and mentally. It is natural that development issues are examined in terms of qualitative and quantitative in psychology. Family Therapy is a relatively new trend in psychology that deals with family issues from different viewpoints. One of the prevailing theories in the field of family therapy is the "system- based" theory. This theory considers the family as a unit composed of interconnected components that firstly, its membership are followers of the behavior of other family members, and secondly, the family like any other military families tends to balance. If a family member is experiencing abnormality, should be treated in conjunction with other members because, each member is depend on its environment and other forming subsets. According to the "system-based" theory, the emergence of new member or old member reduction requires pressure on former members of the family. This requires that the family to be answerable for external and internal changes in a way that adapt themselves to the new situation. However, psychology has tried studying various aspects of the family and offers appropriate guidelines for the prevention or treatment of abnormal behavior.

E) Political science

Philosophers and great thinkers, both Muslim and non-Muslims have divided politics of the ancient into two types of "civil politics" (cities) and "home policy". Thus, family and matters related to it, is placed in the realm of political science and should be political science theorists because the family is the smallest social unit as well as the perfect example of a large community. As major community needs a head, director and careful planning, the family also needs planning and supervisor. If the head to be absent in the family, its members will be amazed and confused and this confusion will lead to chaos of its members and ultimately, will cause family disintegration, so that it is also predictable in the society and political system , as well.
Hence, the family as a political unit has always been studied by political expert. Another factor that has attracted the attention of the political authorities to the family unit is that the family plays an effective role in social and political force training. If you have a look at the past and present of the society, we will clearly perceive that prominent politicians are nurtured in the family environment and from where on have attained the necessary competencies to manage the business community. Therefore, the family also plays an important role in maintaining national sovereignty and independence of a nation. History shows that the nations have always been strong and powerful and had a more solid foundation. In contrast, the decline and failure of any nation started when principles of the nation's family have been weakened. The political scholars have always introduced the family as a health indicator and strength of the political life of the society and the fact that any weakness in the family system affects the survival of the nation. According to many experts, policy development and national sovereignty of a country is largely dependent on the strength of the family system. Today, all politicians in the world strongly support of cultural and economical life of the family so, this issue politically and socially can have a different analysis. Acting to duties is one of the attitudes intended to look at this issue. Accordingly, providing basic needs and providing means for the welfare is the nation's right on the shoulders of the government. The political rulers of society based on their religious and national duties, must focus on the people's the needs because the country's national income and capital are in the hands of community leaders and must be paid for family livelihoods. Another attitude is that families have a major role in the emergence and perpetuation of power and for this reason, are backed by political operative leaders, especially when switching power and holding elections more promises from the political groups given to people. Thus, family, either in the past or in the future, has been regarded by experts of theoretical, political and practical knowledge. However, Educational experts look at the family as an educational institution more than all.
The warm family atmosphere is the most suitable place for training the talents and the capabilities of new generation; it is an environment full of love, emotions and pure feelings, and the kid from the early days of life, is embraced by loving parents and learns the lessons of sacrifice, love, generosity and loyalty. The spirit of cooperation and serving people is shaped in the family atmosphere. The kid teaches how to live with others and how to participate in planning and decision-making. According training experts, the family like an informal education center teaches life etiquette to the children indirectly. According to them, the family has always beside the school been known as agent influential in education and has shown its influence. So, the more schools and homes are solidly linked together, the more efficient the education will be. Hence, Parent-teacher associations in most training centers are carried out for this purpose and each member of the family, especially parents, play an important role in the children's upbringing.

 



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Monday, August 8, 2016
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author: علی اکبر مظاهری