Mr. BAGHCHEBAN, was inventor of teaching method to deaf people in Iran, founder of pre-school education and a pioneer in culture and literature of children. He was born in
Translator: Majid Jamalzadeh
Date of birth: 1885
Death: 25 November 1966
Mr. BAGHCHEBAN, was inventor of teaching method to deaf people in Iran, founder of pre-school education and a pioneer in culture and literature of children. He was born in Yerevan city (Caucasus state) in 1885. His father and grandfather were the people of Tabriz. His father was confectioner, architect and sculptor who was adept at quoting old stories and poems of SHANAMEH. His grandmother`s name was BANAFSHEH, she was competent woman, poet and local doctor in her own area. These two had important role in fostering artistic talent and creativity on little JABAR. His education started in traditional way. At the age of 15, was forced to leave school and return to father`s professions. In 1905, due to religious conflict, was sent to prison. In jail, he wrote and illustrated weekly magazines by name, MOLA BASHI and MOLA NAHIB and with the help of his cellmate was sending them out to be sold. Prison made fundamental changes in his thoughts and beliefs. Since then, with love toward peace and humanitarian ideas, actively entered in to the social and cultural life.
Mr. BAGHCHEBAN, was considering the education of women and children as important aspect. And in spite of risks, was teaching girls, secretly. His first work was in verse for children by name gilt leaf and the second one was present of eve. These valuable books were printed by the name of JABAR ASGARZADEH and nick name of AJEZ (incapable) in Yerevan city in 1911. At the same time, by writing articles and poems, started his cooperation with MOLANASREDIN humorous newspaper. And a year later, published his own humorous weekly newspaper by name LAKLAK in Erevan in 1912. By the beginning of World War I and the bloody conflicts between Muslims and Armenians, was forced to migrate to Turkey. There he became teller and then governor of AYGDYR city. But later was forced to return to Caucasus. In 1917, he founded a school in NOURASHIN city, (a function of Yerevan), but due to long lived turmoil, could not continue. In 1918, because of severity of bleeding in Caucasus, came to Iran, along with his family. Mr. BAGHCHEBAN, started his cultural services as first grade teacher in AHMADIYEH School in MARAND city. Very soon, his way of teaching and progress of students, attracted others. His first work in Iran was called as snoring. He wrote it for the sake of students and performed it in the said school. Meanwhile, he got a permission to establish a school for girls. But fanatical opposition did not allow him to proceed. In 1919, due to good reputation, head of cultural office of AZERBAEEJAN, invited him to go to Tabriz. He went to the said city and continued his works. At this time, by his own method, started to write the first grade book for children. To teach variety of courses, he made audio-visual equipment. Then wrote an easy alphabet book for teaching Persian to adult Turk speaking fellows. JABAR along with his wife, SAFIYEH MIRBABAEE and his colleague, succeeded to teach girls in especial classes.
In this period, he established Teachers Supportive Community and Theatre Community. And wrote critical plays like life of teachers and aunt GHEZI. In 1923, upon the proposal of head of cultural office of AZERBAEEJAN, founded a kindergarten called as children`s garden in Tabriz. Then changed his own surname from ASGARZADEH to BAGHCHEBAN. He made games, new crafts, different decorations and mask making for children. And wrote poetry, song and plays and with the help of his wife, who was familiar with music, performed, musical plays in the nursery. In 1925, according to the state of a deaf child in said school, decided to teach to deaf students. Soon started to teach to three deaf boy student. He had no prior experience in teaching to deaf persons, nor had any access to books and articles regarding such matter. Upon his own experience, realized the important roles of sight and touch senses in teaching the deaf to understand. First he divided the sounds of Persian language in to two categories, laryngeal and respiratory and then divided each of these two groups in to continuous and non- continuous. He invented oral hand alphabet system, which is unique of its kind in the world. This system is based on the characteristics of sounds and words. In this alphabet, unlike other types, person, uses only one hand.
In 1925, he was invited by head of cultural office in Shiraz. In the same year, JABAR, founded Shiraz kindergarten, and began writing poetry, riddles and plays. His other programs for children included sports, hiking in mountains and deserts, exercise and laundry. At the same time, continued to work in the theatre. With the help of Mr. NASROLAH SHADRAVAN, performed some critical plays. At the end of 1925, he came to Tehran. He wanted to establish an institution for psychological and educational research, but due to lack of support, left it.
At this time, for a short time, worked in a cigarette making factory. In 1926. JABAR published an advertisement regarding deaf education. Very soon he started to teach in his friend clinic by only one student. The number of students gradually increased to 5. At the end of the academic year, the ministry of culture was satisfied with his way of teaching and paid him monthly 40 TOMAN as a regular basis to establish a school. In the same year, he invented the dumb phone and registered it. This hearing aid apparatus, does the transmission of voice through teeth. In 1928, the ministry of culture, published his alphabet education order. This alphabet is still used for schools and adults. In 1936, with the help of good people, established the protection of deaf, dumb and blind society in Tehran. A year later in 1937, he could register the society.
In 1953, BAGHCHEBAN, started the first deaf teacher training courses with cooperation of elementary teachers college in his own institute.
During his life with implementation of deaf teacher education, schools, especial schools, colleges, training classes were established.
Among his books is the AZARI translation of KHAYAM`s quatrains, which has particular value. The said book shows his ideas and philosophy in life. Finally this great man expired on 25 November 1966. God bless him.