Surveying the reasons of the superiority of Imam Ali in caliphate (1)
Narrations related to caliphate
The Sunnite scholars’ one of the reasons with regard to Abu-Bakr’s caliphate is referred in the Quran Book. It may be interesting to know that the Sunni scholars refer to the verses of the Quran to prove Abu-Bakr’s caliphate. If you refer to the verbal books of the Sunnite, especially about the al-Layl Surah, the verses
وَ سَيُجَنَّبُهَا الْأَتْقَى * الَّذِي يُؤْتِي مَالَهُ يَتَزَكَّى
It is said that this Surah has been descended about Abu-Bakr and it is the reason of Abu-Bakr’s goodness and qualification for caliphate.
I recite the same phrase that Mr Iji, the founder of the Sunni narration , has said in the book “al-Mavaghef” and Mr Seyed JarJaei in the book “in the explanation of Mavagheb” in order to understand what its position is scientifically ?He says
قال أكثر المفسرين و قد بكر فهو أتقى و من هو أتقى فهو أكرم عند الله لقوله تعالى * "إن أكرمكم عند الله أتقاكم" و هو أي الأكرم عند الله هو الأفضل فأبو بكر أفضل ممن عداه من الأمة
The verses that have been descended about Abu-Bakr demonstrate that he is one of the most faithful Muslims and one of the most beloved Muslims for God.
"و ما لأحد عنده من نعمة تجزى" يصرفه عن الحمل على علي إذ عنده نعمة التربية فإن النبي ربى عليا و هي نعمة تجزى و إذا لم يحمل عليه تعين أبو بكر .
This verse cannot be about Imam Ali (peace be upon him) because Imam Ali (peace be upon him) owes the blessing of the prophet‘s education and this blessing should be awarded. Whereas this verse does not represent about Imam Ali (peace be upon him), it can be only about Abu-Bakr.
He emphasizes in this verse that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was educated by the prophet. If it is supposed to seek virtue, no virtue can be as valuable as a person that had been with the prophet and had been educated by him from the childhood until the last moments of his life. The Sunni scholars objected that we acted impertinently toward the companions and said that all of them became apostate except four or five persons. In fact, this is impudence to the prophet that was not able to educate human during twenty three years except these persons. We have answered this several times which the prophet did not make human become believers. In other words, this is left to human to accept the prophet’s guidance or not.
فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْكَ الْبَلَاغ
إِنَّكَ لَا تَهْدِي مَنْ أَحْبَبْت
Sahih Mosalam and Sahih Bokhari say
لتتبعن سنن من قبلكم شبرا بشبر
.“''The Muslim nation will follow the way of the last nations step by step
If it is right, Honor Nuh (peace be upon him) invited people to God for nine hundred and fifty years.
وَ مَا آَمَنَ مَعَهُ إِلَّا قَلِيلٌ
Is this Honor Nuh’s mistake (peace be upon him)? Not at all! Although Honor Musa (peace be upon him) faced to a lot of difficulties and came up to a lot miracles for Bani-Esraeil, when they crossed the Nil River and the Freon Troop drowned under their very eyes and as soon as they arrived in the land and saw idolaters worship the tree they requested Honor Musa (peace be upon him) something else.
اجْعَلْ لَنَا إِلَهًا كَمَا لَهُمْ آَلِهَةٌ
If it be like this, there will not be impudence. In addition, you say that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) was educated by the prophet and a person that was educated by the prophet cannot be deserved to be as a caliph. In contrast, a person had been idolater for a part of his life and then became Muslim because you believe that he granted some of his properties to the prophet (peace be upon him), he is the most faithful, the greatest and the most virtuous person, but the person that was educated by the prophet is not the most faithful, the greatest and the most virtuous person. However, we believe that he did not grant some of his properties to the prophet (peace be upon him) and this has no history background. Moreover, Alame Amini (may God‘s mercy be upon him) has abolished this claim in the book “al-Ghadir” and if it be necessary, we will discuss about this case.
Mr Tabari has said several narrations in his interpretation (volume 30/ page 287) and this verse has been descended about Abu-Bakr’s dignity. There are several points that dears should pay attention more:
The first answer: If you look for the most virtuous person, why do you want to stick a verse with a lot of paste and prove Mr Abu Bakr’s superiority? Although you have narrated a lot of narrations in the most valid books which demonstrate that Imam Ali (peace be upon him) is the most virtuous person among nations. If you look for the most virtuous person, suppose that this verse refers to Abu-Bakr’s superiority , but this is in contrast with the various narrations that you have narrated with the valid documents for Imam Ali’s superiority (peace be upon him) among all of the nation.
The first Hadith:
Ahmadbn Hanbel, as a skillful Hadith writer that is accepted by the Sunnite, says “the virtues that are related to Imam Ali (peace be upon him) with the valid documents can belong to none of the companions:
ما لأحد من الصحابة من الفضائل بالأسانيد الصحاح مثل ما لعلي رضي الله عنه
If you look for any virtue, why do you not consider Ahmadbn Hanbel’s Hadith as a virtue? But you want to present the verses and several false and weak narrations in order to prove Abu Bakr’s superiority. Of course, we will prove that all of the narrations are weak and there is no worth referring them. Suppose that they have worth to be referred, they will be in contrast with these narrations. Mr Abn Abdolber, as one the Sunni supporters, says
لم يرو في فضائل أحد من الصحابة بالأسانيد الحسان ما روى في فضائل علي بن أبي طالب
The narrations that have been said about Imam Ali’s superiority (peace be upon him) have been said in none of the companions’ superiority.
The second Hadith:
Dears keep these narrations as memory from us. The Sunni scholars accuse us of exaggerating about Imam Ali (peace be upon him). Observe the narration and then see whether the thousand narrations that we have said about Imam Ali’s virtues (peace be upon him) are as valid as this narration or not? You narrate the narration about Imam Ali’s superiority (peace be upon him) for a week and then a person narrates this narration. The prophet bade to Imam Ali (peace be upon him).
و الذي نفسي بيده! لولا أن يقول فيك طوائف من أمتي ما قالت النصارى في عيسى بن مريم، لقلت فيك اليوم مقالا لا تمرّ بأحد من المسلمين إلا أخذ التراب من أثر قدميك يطلبون به البركة
“Swear to God that my soul and body are under his power. If I were not worried that people exaggerated about you as they did about Honor Isa (peace be upon him), I would say words about you which no Muslim would not cross provided that they took the dirt under your feet and took benediction from it. What a beautiful narration! If you put five hundred narrations about Imam Ali‘s virtues, science, piety and dignity (peace be upon him) in one of pans of scales and this narration in the other pan of scales, this narration will be heavier. If there is a person at home, his/her remarks will be enough. If you look for virtue, why have you lost the hole of bless? Put thousand narrations about Mr Abu Bakr’s superiority, Omar, Othman and other companions in one of pans of scales and this narration in the other pan of scales. Is this narration more superior?
The third Hadith:
It is narrated in the book ‘’Sahih Mosalam’’ about the Khabir War that has a long story: the prophet gave the flag to Abu Bakr, but he came back with failure. Moreover, the prophet gave the flag to Omar, but he came back with failure because there was disagreement among the army, Abu Bakr and Omar and the troop scared Omar and Abu Bakr or Omar and Abu Bakr scared the troop. And consequently, they were not able to invade”. The prophet (peace be upon him) bade
لأعطين الراية رجلا يحب الله و رسوله و يحبه الله و رسوله
I will give the flag to a person that loves God and the prophet (peace be upon him) and they love him as well.
If you look for the virtuous person, who is the most virtuous person that God and the prophet (peace be upon him) love him? Do you look for a superior person? Even it is said in different narrations which the second caliph said ‘’I wish God gave me one of virtues that he had given to Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and this was better than all wealth on the earth.
For example, the flag story is about a day that all of the companions stretched out their necks to take advantage of this virtue, but the next day, the prophet (peace be upon him) gave the flag to Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and then he participated in the war and provided the victory for Muslims.
The first answer from this reason is that you consider this virtue for Mr. Abu Bakr for the caliphate and use the above verse to prove his virtuousness, superiority and greatness is in contrast with the narrations that you have narrated about Imam Ali’s virtues (peace be upon him). It is referred to the Rezvan Allegiance, but he says in this verse
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ فَمَنْ نَكَثَ فَإِنَّمَا يَنْكُثُ عَلَى نَفْسه .
We will be satisfied provided that they do not break their allegiance, but he says firmly there ‘’ يحبه الله و رسوله’’. Affection is not the same meaning as satisfaction. A person may be satisfied with his/her children, but his/her affection is more for one of his/her children. Affection is in a higher rank than satisfaction. Maybe, satisfaction is the first step of ten steps of affection.
The second answer
One of cases that the Sunni scholars reasoned against us was that they had narrated fifty or sixty narrations about Abu Bakr and Omar‘s virtues in Sahih Bokhari, Sahih Mosalam and Mosnad Ahmad. Therefore, the prophet (peace be upon him) narrated
لو كنت متخذا خليلا من أمتي لاتخذت أبا بكر خليل
If I had been supposed to choose a friend for myself, I would have chosen Abu Bakr.
لو لم أبعث لبعث عمر بن الخطاب
If I had been supposed not to be chosen as a prophet, Omar Bn Khetab would have been chosen as a prophet.
لو کان في أمتي محدّثا لکان عمر بن الخطاب
If a person is deserved to speak with angels in my nation, that person will be Omar Bn Khetab.
Hundreds false narrations have been narrated about Abu Bakr, Omar and Othman. In Saghife Bani Saede, there was a hard struggle between the helpers and the immigrants in relation to caliphate. Even they crushed Sad Bn Ebade under their feet and broke Hobab Bn Monzar’s nose and said ‘’و منکم أمير و منا وزير ‘’. The helpers said ‘’ we are the most virtuous because Islam was spread with our support ‘’ and the immigrants said ‘’ we are the first Muslims’’ until Abu Bakr recited the prophet’s one of his narrations (peace be upon him) which made all of them not say any longer more and said ‘’ the prophet (peace be upon him) bade
الأئمة من قريش
''Imams are from Ghoraysh’’. After this narration, the helpers and the immigrants did not say any longer more.
If you believe that all of these narrations had been about Abu Bakr and Omar’s superiority and the prophet (peace be upon him) had bade all of these narrations, these would have been definitely heard by Mr Abu Bakr, Omar, Abu Obeide Jarah and etc. The best and the most important time that these narrations were needed was in Saghifeye Bani Saede. If they had narrated these narrations, they would not have been able to open their mouth to talk, but they narrated none of them. In addition, during three years of Abu Bakr’s caliphate, he did not narrate one of these narrations. During twelve years of Omar’s caliphate, he did not narrate one of these narrations. All of these are related to Bani Omaye’s period. Also, if there had been narrations, they would have said one of these in Saghifeye Bani Saede.