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The dismissal of the caliphate of Abu Bakr in the time of Imam Ali

According to the narrations that we studied, when the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) took back this mission from
The dismissal of the caliphate of Abu Bakr in the time of Imam Ali
The dismissal of the caliphate of Abu Bakr in the time of Imam Ali
 
Translator: Zahra. Kalaa
Source: Rasekhoon.net


 

According to the narrations that we studied, when the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) took back this mission from Abubakr and did not consider him qualified for expressing hate and reciting the verses of the Tawba Surah among the polytheists, he became sad from this story and cried.
We knew in the fourth narration
فَانْصَرَفَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ، وَهُوَ كَئِيبٌ، فَقَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، أُنْزِلَ فِيَّ شَيْءٌ... .
Abubakr refused from the journey as he was crying. Then he said '' O' the messenger of God! Has anything been descended about me.
According to the first narration, Abubakr cried
فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ (ص) أَبُو بَكْرٍ بَكَى، قَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، حَدَثَ فِيَّ شَيْءٌ...
When Abubakr came to the messenger of God, Abubakr cried and said '' O' the messenger of God! What has happened about me?''
According to the narration of Nasaee, Abubakr became sad after he was dismissaled
بَعَثَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ (ص) أَبَا بَكْرٍ بِبَرَاءَةَ حَتَّى إِذَا كَانَ بِبَعْضِ الطَّرِيقِ، أَرْسَلَ عَلِيًّا فَأَخَذَهَا مِنْهُ، ثُمَّ سَارَ بِهَا، فَوَجَدَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ فِي نَفْسِهِ... .
The messenger of God sent Abubakr for expressing hate and he passed some of the way. The messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) sent Ali. Then Ali took the mission from Ali and he went to Mecca for expressing hate. Then Abubakr became sad…
Al-Nesaee, Abu Abd Al-Rahman Ahmad Ibn Shaoib Ibn Ali (died in 303 Hejira) Khasaes Amir-al-Momeneen Ali Ibn Abi Taleb (peace be upon him) v 1 p 93; researched by: Ahmad Mirin Al-Balushi; published by: Maktabat Al-Mala; Kuwait; first edition; 1406 Hejira
Al-Nesaee, Abu Abd Al-Rahman Ahmad Ibn Shaoib Ibn Ali (died in 303 Hejira) Al-Sonan Al-Kobra v 5 p 129; researched by: D. Abd al-Ghafar Soleiman Al-Bandari; Sayyed Kesravi Hassan; published by: Dar Al-Kotob Al-Elmie; Beirut; first edition; 1411 Hejira; 1991
According to the narration that Tabarani has narrated, he imagined that God and his messenger became angry from him.
لَعَلَّ اللَّهَ وَنَبِيَّهُ سَخِطَا عَلَيَّ؟
Maybe, God and his messenger have become angry from me.
His cry proves that the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) took important rank from him. According to the claim of the Sunni scientists, Abubakr had been the leader of Hojaj, cry and sadness would have been meaningless for him because he had high rank and he should not have become sad and cried.
Hence, his cry and sadness is the best reason that he was not the leader of Hojaj, but his mission was to express hate and to recite the Surah of Tawba and the messenger of God dismissaled him from this rank and made him become sad and cry.
The fourth point: the return of Abubakr from the way of Mecca
One of matters that has basic role in clarifying the reality of the story is the return of Abubakr from the midway. According to the narrations that we studied, he came back from the midway sadly and when he came to the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants), he expressed his sadness with cry and tears.
This matter demonstrates that his main duty was to express hate from the polytheists and the messenger of God dismissaled him and appointed Amir Momenan (peace be upon him) for this affair. If his duty had been Emarat apart from expressing hate, he would not have ordered Abubakr to come back.
In the third narration, we knew that the messenger of God wanted Abubakr to comeback and after he came back, he said the reason of dismissal to him
بَعَثَ النَّبِيُّ (ص) بِبَرَاءَةٌ مَعَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ ثُمَّ دَعَاهُ، فَقَالَ: «لَا يَنْبَغِي لِأَحَدٍ...».
The messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) sent the Surah of Barat with Abubakr. Then he asked him and said '' it is not appropriate that someone, except me and a person from my dynasty, announces it.
In the fourth narration, the story has been narrated in this way
خُذِ الْكِتَابَ، فَامْضِ بِهِ إِلَى أَهْلِ مَكَّةَ، قَالَ: فَلَحِقْتُهُ، فَأَخَذْتُ الْكِتَابَ مِنْهُ، فَانْصَرَفَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ، وَهُوَ كَئِيبٌ... .
Take this book and read it for the people of Mecca. Imam Ali (peace be upon him) said '' I tried to reach Abubakr and took the book from him. Abubakr came back and when he was crying…
According to this book, Abubakr came back to Medina after taking back the Surah of Baraat.
In the first narration that has been narrated by Abubakr, the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) ordered Amir Momenan (peace be upon him) to bring Abubakr back and he did so. Abubakr came back and…
قَالَ: فَسَارَ بِهَا ثَلَاثًا، قَالَ لِعَلِيٍّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عَنْهُ: «الْحَقْهُ، فَرُدَّ عَلَيَّ أَبَا بَكْرٍ، وَبَلِّغْهَا أَنْتَ»، قَالَ: فَفَعَلَ، قَالَ: فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ (ص) أَبُو بَكْرٍ بَكَى.
Abubakr passed by three houses. The messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) said to Imam Ali (peace be upon him)'' Go to Abubakr and bring him back to me and express hate to the polytheists yourself. The narrator said '' Imam Ali (peace be upon him) did this affair''. When Abubakr came to the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants), he cried …
Of course, Ibn Kasir has tried decreases the difficulty of this plight for Abubakr and has claimed that Abubakr did not come back right away, but after he fulfilled the rituals of Hajj, he came back to the messenger of God.
وليس المراد أن أبا بكر رضي الله عنه رجع مع فوره بل بعد قضائه للمناسك التي أمره عليها رسول الله.
It is meant that Abubakr came back right away, but he came back after the rituals of Hajj that the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) had appointed him as its leader.
Ibn Kasir Dameshghi, Abu Al-Feda Esmaeel Ibn Omar Al-Gharshi (died in 774 Hejira) Tafsir Quran; v 2 p 334; published by: Dar Al-Fekr; Beirut; 1401 Hejira
This story is in contract with the first narration with valid document that has been narrated by Abubakr. According to this narration, Abubakr passed by three houses toward Mecca and then the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) ordered Amir Momenan (peace be upon him) to go to Abubakr and to bring him back to him and to express hate to the polytheists himself and he did it. Abubakr came back and asked the reason of his dismissal when crying:
قَالَ: فَسَارَ بِهَا ثَلَاثًا، قَالَ لِعَلِيٍّ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى عَنْهُ: «الْحَقْهُ، فَرُدَّ عَلَيَّ أَبَا بَكْرٍ، وَبَلِّغْهَا أَنْتَ»، قَالَ: فَفَعَلَ، قَالَ: فَلَمَّا قَدِمَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ (ص) أَبُو بَكْرٍ بَكَی
He said clearly that the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) wanted Abubakr to come back:
بَعَثَ النَّبِيُّ (ص) بِبَرَاءَةٌ مَعَ أَبِي بَكْرٍ ثُمَّ دَعَاهُ.
It has been narrated with valid document in the book '' Mosnad'' that Abubakr came back after he was dismissaled:
ثنا ابْنُ وَكِيعٍ، قَالَ: نَا أَبِي، عَنْ إِسْرَائِيلَ، عَنْ أَبِي إِسْحَاقَ، عَنْ زَيْدِ بْنِ يُثَيْعٍ، عَنْ أَبِي بَكْرٍ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، أَنّ النَّبِيَّ (ص) " بَعَثَهُ بِسُورَةِ بَرَاءَةٍ يَقْرَؤُهَا عَلَى النَّاسِ بِالْمَوْسِمِ، ثُمَّ أَحْدَثَ إِلَيْهِ مِنْ أَمْرِهِ مَا أَحْدَثَ، فَبَعَثَ عَلِيًّا رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ، فَقَالَ: أَدْرِكْ أَبَا بَكْرٍ فَخُذْ مِنْهُ سُورَةَ بَرَاءَةٍ، فَاقْرَأْهَا عَلَى النَّاسِ، قَالَ: فَأَخَذَهَا، فَرَجَعَ أَبُو بَكْرٍ، فَقَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَالِي أُنْزِلَ فِيَّ شَيْءٌ؟ فَقَالَ: " لا، أُمِرْتُ أَلا يُؤَدِّيَهَا إِلا أَنَا، أَوْ رَجُلٌ مِنِّي ".
Zeid Bin Yasei has narrated from Abubakr that the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) sent him with the Surah of Baraat to recite it for the people in the rituals of Hajj. Then a new event happened and the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) sent Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and said '' go toward Abubakr and take the Surah of Baraat from him and recite it yourself''. The narrator says '' Imam Ali (peace be upon him) took it and Abubakr came back and said to the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) '' O' the messenger of God! What has happened? What has been descended about me?' the prophet said '' no. I have been ordered to do it myself or a person from my family?''
Al-Mervazi, Abu Bakr Ahmad Ibn Ali Ibn Saeed Al-Amavi (died in 292 Hejira) Mosnad Abi Bakr Al-Sadigh v 1 p 198; 132; researched by: Shoaib Al-Arnowt; published by: Al-Maktab Al-Islami; Beirut
If Abubakr had not come back, he must have disagreed with the order of the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) and he did not act to the rule of God and his messenger. Therefore, will not the action of Abubakr be like the following verses?
وَمَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِما أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولئِكَ هُمُ الْكافِرُون Al-Maede/ verse 44
وَمَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِما أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُون‏. Al-Maede/ verse 45
وَمَنْ لَمْ يَحْكُمْ بِما أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ فَأُولئِكَ هُمُ الْفاسِقُون‏. Al-Maede/ verse 47
Ibn Hajar Asghalani understood that the remark of Ibn Kasir was in contrast with the main narrations and it had bad consequences for Abubakr. He has claimed that there is no problem that Abubakr came back right away and joined the caravan. But to prove this remark, he has distorted the narration.
He has written in the book '' Fath Al-Bari''
ووقع في حديثِ علىٍ عند أحمدٍ لما نَزَلت عشرَ آياتٍ من براءةٍ بعث بها النبي (ص) مع أبي بكر ليُقْرِأَها على أهلِ مكةٍ ثم دعاني فقال: «أدرك أبا بكر فحيثما لقيته فخذ منه الكتاب» فرجع أبو بكر فقال يا رسول الله نزل في شيء فقال لا إلا أنه لن يؤدي أو لكن جبريل قال لا يؤدي عنك إلا أنت أو رجل منك.
قال العماد بن كثير ليس المراد أن أبا بكر رجع من فوره بل المراد رجع من حجته قلت ولا مانع من حمله على ظاهره لقرب المسافة.
It has been said in the Hadith of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) and Ahmad has narrated '' when ten verses of the Baraat Surah were descended, I sent it with Abubakr to recite it for the people of Mecca. Then he asked me and said '' go to Abubakr and when you met him, take the book from him''. Then Abubakr came back and said '' O' the messenger of God! Have any verses been descended about me?'' then he said '' no. just you should not do that and the Gabriel has said '' only you and a person from your family should do that''.
Emad Bin Kasir has said '' it does not mean that Abubakr came back right away, but it means that he came back after his hajj. Of course, it is possible that on the face of it,( he came back right away) because the distance was short.
Al-Asghalani Al-Shafei, Ahmad Ibn Ali Ibn Hajar Abolfzal (died in 852 Hejira) Fath Al-Bari Sharh Sahih Al-Bokhari; v 8 p 320; researched by: Moheb Al-Din Al-Khatib; published by: Dar Al-Marefat; Beirut
Mobarakfori has repeated this mistake in the book in the book '' Tohfe Al-Ahuzi''
وعند أحمد من حديث علي لما نزلت عشر آيات من براءة بعث بها النبي مع أبي بكر ليقرأها على أهل مكة ثم دعاني فقال أدرك أبا بكر فحيثما لقيته فخذ منه الكتاب فرجع أبو بكر فقال يا رسول الله نزل في شيء فقال لا إلا أنه لن يؤدي أو لكن جبريل قال لا يؤدي عنك إلا أنت أو رجل منك.
قال إبن كثير ليس المراد أن أبا بكر رضي الله عنه رجع من فوره بل بعد قضائه للمناسك التي أمره عليها رسول الله.
قال الحافظ في الفتح ولا مانع من حمله على ظاهره لقرب المسافة
Ahmad has narrated from Imam Ali (peace be upon him) '' when ten verses of the Baraat Surah were descended, the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) sent Abubakr to recite it for the people of Mecca. Then he asked me and said '' go to Abubakr and when you met him, take the book from him''. Then Abubakr came back and said '' O' the messenger of God! Have any verses been descended about me?'' then he said '' no. just you should not do that and the Gabriel has said '' only you and a person from your family should do that''.
Emad Bin Kasir has said '' it does not mean that Abubakr came back right away, but it means that he came back after h fulfilled the rituals of Hajj that had appointed him its leader .
Hafez (Ibn Hajar) has said in the book '' Fath Al-Bari'' it is possible that we consider the appearance of the narration because the distance was short.
Al-Mobarkfuri, Abu Al-Ala Muhammad Abd Al-Rahman Ibn Abd Al-Rahim (died in 1353 Hejira) Tahfa Al-Ahvazi Sharh Jame Al-Termezi v 8 p 386; published by: Dar Al-Kotob Al-Elmie; Beirut;

/J

 
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author: علی اکبر مظاهری