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24/12/1395 09:12:00 ق.ظ

Court Jews

Court Jews

Court Jews

 

Translator: Davood Salehan
Source: www.rasekhoon.net


 

Life of Joseph Suskind Oppenheimer (1698-1738) is a clear sample of scrambling way of "court Jews" in the small German states.
Joseph Oppenheimer that was known as "Suss Jude" is of well-known family of Oppenheimer. Earlier, we have spoken about Samuel Oppenheimer and his extraordinary authority at the Habsburg court. During the days of Samuel Oppenheimer and Samson Vertimor in Vienna, another branch of the family was based in Heidelberg. Joseph Oppenheimer belongs to this category.
Joseph's father was tax and military and trade contractors and currency exchange and gained wealth in Vienna by employment and help of his family. In 1732, Joseph Suss Oppenheimer became contractor of Karl Alexander, Prince of Duchy Wuerttemberg, and later established a similar association with Hesse, Cologne and the Palatinate (Bavaria)'s governance.
Carl Alexander ruled Wuerttemberg state in the years 1733-1737. He, who was now called as the Duke of Wuerttemberg, established tyranny and despotism state and extremely turned to development of foreign trade, which means participation in Mavra’bhar's loot. During this period, Joseph Oppenheimer was his counselor, minister and designer and original implementer of his plans.
Oppenheimer dissolved the traditional State Council in order to increase the income of Alexander and the creation of a powerful militarist government and formed a Council of Ministers which was only in charge of the Duke. He appointed Marranos/Jews, who at that time were still considered as "outsiders", in country's most important positions in the Ministry and other businesses and accumulated treasury by selling aristocratic titles. To suppress the people, especially to prevent their protests to heavy taxes, he established a violent spy police organization. He established a detailed military industry system, especially in producing gunpowder in Wuerttemberg.
Greedy and ruthless scrambling of Karl Alexander and Joseph Oppenheimer provoked people's deep hatred against these two. In March 1737, Karl Alexander suddenly died. People immediately arrested Oppenheimer and hanged him on April 2nd, 1738.
Geoffrey Vigudr, Jewish author, assigns the execution of the greedy and criminal Minister as "anti-Semitism" and a "religious bias". He made a saga of Oppenheimer's prison time and wrote he grew a beard in prison like a faithful Jew, and he was continually praying god, insisted on eating halal meat, and finally when Christian asked him to save his life by converting to Christianity, he said: "a free man can decide to change their religion, not a prisoner." Vigudr adds: "in Jewish community of Germany, Oppenheimer was praised as a martyr and a victim of political intrigues and anti-Semitic hatred."
In 1925, Lyon Fukhtvanger (1884-1958), the famous German Jewish novelist, wrote a historical novel based on the life of Oppenheimer called "Suss Jude" that has been translated and published in English by the name of "power". The novel has been published in the United States of America, and millions of copies, in different languages, have been sold so far. In 1934, Luther Mendes, British Jewish director, created a film based on the novel above. In the film, Oppenheimer is depicted in a tragic human visual; he symbolizes the "suffering" of the Jews of Europe. In response to this action, Viet Harlan, German director, made a film in 1939 called "Suss Jude" where there is a negative image of the Oppenheimer.
Jewish plutocracy links with the royal family of Denmark with Albertus Denis(1580-1645) begins. His other name is Alvaro Dynyz and his Jewish name is Samuel Yahiya.
Albertus Dennis was of Portuguese Jews who immigrated to the port of Hamburg. In 1618, Christian IV, King of Denmark, appointed him at the head of the state's mint. In addition to his financial affairs of the court of Denmark, he was busy by export of grain and sugar imports on a massive scale, and he made and developed his network of brokers, and according to the Jewish Encyclopedia, in the 1630s, he created an information and news service for Danish court. Christian IV, at the request of Dennis, on November 22, 1622 by sending a message to the Jewish leaders of Amsterdam and Hamburg demanded them to send a group of Jews to the land so that they reside in south of Denmark, in the border areas of Denmark and Holstein. King of Denmark granted extraordinary privileges to the Jews. Jews began widespread scrambling in the country as dealers and traders of jewelry of noble Danish royal family and community members.
In 1646, Benjamin Musafya was appointed as physician to the king of Denmark. In 1684, Musafya's son in law, called Gabriel Milan, took place on the ruler of the Danish colony in the West Indies (of America). Thus, a strong connection emerged between the royal family and aristocracy of Denmark and Jewish plutocracy in the seventeenth century.
In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Jewish families of Dulyma, Abenzver, Franco, Granada, Meldola, Domza, Moresko, Tekzyra Domatus, and Kaserz were as financial diplomatic brokers in the service of Danish court. Christian the Fourth appointed Gabriel Gomez (Samuel de Kaserz) as the financial agent. Gomez also had this position during Frederick III, the next king of Denmark, and was also in charge of the Commissioner of Finance. The mentioned names show that the Jewish houses all belong to the former Jewish oligarchs of Portugal. From this description, it is believed that the "secret" of scrambling of Danish East India Company during this time in the coast of India, as well as active participation of "Danes" in the Indian Ocean and the Persian Gulf and East Africa Marine thefts is revealed.
From around half of the seventeenth century, we find a strong connection between the Jewish plutocracy and Christina, Queen of Sweden:
Christina (1626-1689) is the daughter of Gustavus Adolphus, King of Sweden. She was heir to the throne when she was 18 years old (1644) and was at the forefront of the country as Queen of Sweden. Christina was interested in theoretical issues and her court turned into gathering center of European intellectuals and thinkers such as Rene Descartes.
In the early reign of Christina (1648) Thirty Years' Wars in Europe ended. The consequence of this war for Sweden was emergence of a wealthy Protestant oligarchs which was had achieved great wealth in the middle of abundant events. They had vast estates and huge magnificent castles and palaces. Rykzdag (Swedish Parliament) was a gathering place and center of power of the oligarchy and it was through these institutions that they exerted their control over their destinies. In 1654, due to the desire of oligarchy of Sweden, Christina resigned and her cousin, Karl Gustav the tenth succeeded her. Christina eventually settled in Rome and finally died in this city.
In this long period of 35 years, Diego Tekzyra, hid son, Manuel, and his son-in-law, Francisco Lopez (Baron Avernas Dugras the second) made Christina huge investment in circulation in overseas trade, in Asia, Africa and America. With the benefit of this "trade" the former Queen of Sweden could build a prosperous and glorious palace in Rome and found great fame throughout Europe as the patron of science and art and intellectuals' center.
In the early eighteenth century AD, the Jewish phenomenon has spread to the Russian court as well:
Russian Tsar, Peter the Great (1682-1725), traveled to the Netherlands and the United Kingdom and Central Europe in his youth and adored "German" economy, culture and politics pattern. In return, he established enlightened authoritarian political structure in his territory. Peter set a German Jew named Moses Jospher (Wesley) as his court's financial broker. Moses also worked at the court of Denmark.
Alexey Tolstoy in his famous historical novel about the life of Peter the Great has stated the attitude of that day supporters and opponents of Peter's policies in a conversation. A delegation of Jesuits priests from France came to the court of Peter carrying the massage:
There are now a large number of pirates in the seas. Going around the world is dangerous for France navigation ships. Most merchandise is lost in vain. But from the Russian territory to the east the way is straightforward and easy, both to the Iran and towards India and China. Anyway, you do not have the means to carry products to other countries. Bags of your tradesmen are empty in Moscow. You have no ability, but French businessmen are powerful.
In respond to the proposal, dignitaries of Moscow are two sections: a group of them get panicked. One says,”We should read Orthodox's funeral ritual." Other said: "in the time' of Shahria Mazi we got rid of English; is it proper that we obey the French now? No, God forbid, "Peter and his supporters' attitude are as follows:
O silly men, you are fool dumping treasure! You are hungry and refuse the hand which offers you bread. Has God blinded your sight of wisdom? In all Christian countries, some of which are smaller than a province, business is booming. People add to their wealth and seek benefit for them. Only we are the ones who are in deep sleep... Soon the Russians will be called the Valley of Silence. Then Swedes, English and the Ottoman Turks will come and own it.
This is the look of all European rulers who saw themselves separate from "trading" wheel of those days.
Russian rulers had no way except ground invasion of the East in order to compensate this "backwardness". Thus the Tsarist colonialism began. Peter took advantage of collapse of the Safavid state in order to endure "hunger" and "bankruptcy" that Alexey Tolstoy has described; in 1722, he marched to Persia to capture the Volga trade route and coastal areas of the Caspian Sea and occupied Baku and Darband.
Historians of Hebrew University of Jerusalem have declared the number of Jewish world population in the middle of the seventeenth century as 675 thousand; 350 thousand people lived in Eastern Europe, 250 thousand in the Middle East and North Africa and 75 thousand people in Central and Western Europe. In 1800, this figure rose to 2.2 million people: 500 thousand people in the Middle East and North Africa, one million people in East Europe and 700 thousand people in Central and Western Europe. According to sources, the number of Jews in the world in 1880 was about 7.5 million people: 750 thousand people in the Middle East and North Africa, 4/250 million people in East Europe and 2.5 million people lived in in the central and Western Europe.
As we see, the Jewish communities of Europe should be considered as entirely new communities, which were mainly formed in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries AD except in some cities such as Frankfurt and Prague that are backgrounds of immigrant and the establishment of older Jewish communities. Therefore, it is natural that people of Europe look at the Jews as aliens through the early twentieth century. Given that Jewish immigrants of Spain and Portugal began speaking in language of people of their seating only from the eighteenth century.
Historians of Hebrew University of Jerusalem have described structure ruling Jewish communities till the nineteenth century as closed and focused structure. The leadership of the communities, as before, was in the hands of a small group of influential aristocratic family; they constituted a closed oligarchy and punished their fractious citizens by the Jewish courts.

/J

 

 

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