Preaching Islam in the time of prophet
Ibn Hajar Heithami has claimed that lack of dismissing muezzins that Abubakr had already assigned is due to the reason that the messenger of God had
Translator: Zahra. Kalaa
Ibn Hajar Heithami has claimed that lack of dismissing muezzins that Abubakr had already assigned is due to the reason that the messenger of God had not dismissed the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants), but he sent him with Imam Ali ( peace be upon him and his descendants) to express hate
قال حميد بن عبد الرحمن ثم أردف رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم علي بن أبي طالب فأمره أن يؤذن ببراءة قال أبو هريرة فأذن معنا علي يوم النحر في أهل منى ببراءة أن لا يحج بعد العام مشرك ولا يطوف بالبيت عريان فتأمله تجد عليا إنما أذن مع مؤذني أبي بكر.
ومما يصرح بما ذكرناه أن أبا بكر لما جاء علي لم يعزل مؤذنيه فعدم عزله له وجعله إياهم شركاء لعلي صريح في أن عليا إنما جاء وفاء بعادة العرب التي قلناها لا لعزل أبي بكر وإلا لم يسع أبا بكر أن يبقي مؤذنيه يؤذنون مع علي فاتضح بذلك ما قلناه وأنه لا دلالة لهم في ذلك بوجه من الوجوه غير ما يفترونه من الكذب وينتحلونه من العناد والجهل.
Hamid Bin Abd Al-Rahman said '' then the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) sent Imam Ali (peace be upon him) with us and he ordered him to express hate. Abu Harire said '' Imam Ali (peace be upon him) expressd hate among the people of Mani on the day of scarification and said '' no polytheists should go to Hajj and no naked person should circle around the house of God''. The considerable point is that Ali along with the Muezzins of Abubakr expressd hate.
One of things clarifies what we said is that when Imam Ali (peace be upon him) came, Abubakr did not dismiss his Muezzins. Hence, lack of dismissing him and appointing them as the companions of Imam Ali (peace be upon him) is related to this matter that Imam Ali ( peace be upon him) to follow the custom of Arabic people not to dismiss Abubakr. Otherwise, it was not acceptable that Abubakr left his Muezzins in order to accompany Imam Ali (peace be upon him) in order to express hate. This matter clarifies what we said. This matter is not in the favor of the Shias at all except insult and lie that come from their disobedience and ignorance.
Al-Heisami, Abu Al-Abbas Ahmad Ibn Muhammad Ibn Ali Ibn Hajr (died in 973 Hejira) Al-Savaegh Al-Mohreghe Ali Ahal Al-Rafz and Al-Zandeghe v 1 p 83; researched by: Abd Al-Rahman Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abdullah Al-Torki; Kamel Muhammad Al-Khorat; published by: Al-Resalat Insitute; first edition; 1417 Hejira; 1997
We would like to answer him in this way:
First: according to the narrations that we already got familiar with and proved their validity, Amir Momenan (peace be upon him) had come to dismiss Abubakr from this mission and even the messenger of God ordered him to bring Abubakr back. So Abubakr came back with crying eyes and asked the reason of his dismiss. Hence, the remark of Ibn Hajar is Ijtahad against the clear words that the Sunni scientists have narrated with valid documents.
The cries of Abubakr are the best reason for his dismiss from this important mission. If he had not dismissed him, why would he have cried and asked the reason of his dismiss?
If Abubakr had not dismissed his Muezzins and they would have done that according to the order of Abubakr he would have definitely disagreed with the order of the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) and according to the verses of the Quran, disagreeing with the order the order of the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) is considered blasphemy, tyranny and adultery.
Second: as we already proved, Abu Harire accompanied Imam Ali (peace be upon him) in this mission according to the order of the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) and under the order of Amir Momenan not it was the Muezzin of Abubakr. This matter has also been narrated with valid document.
At first, Abu Harire may have taken the responsibility of announcing hate according to the order of Abubakr. However, this story is related to the time that Abubakr had mission and duty in this area. However, when he was dismissed by the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) and afterwards, he cooperated with Amir Momenanin announcing hate in Mecca according to the permission of the prophet.
Were the people of Arab in the habit of sending a person from their family in order to express a treaty?
Denying this unique feature of Amir Momenan (peace be upon him), the Sunni scientists have claimed '' the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) sent Amir Momenan (peace be upon him) for hating polytheists because the people of Arab used to go themselves or sent someone from their family in order to abolish their treaty. Therefore, the prophet sent Ali Bin Abi Taleb that was from his family.
Ibn Teimie Harani has written about this area
قالوا وكان من عادة العرب أن لا يَعقِدَ العهودَ ولا يَفْسَخُها إلا المطاعُ أو رجلٌ من أهل بيته فبعث عليا لأجلِ فسخِ العهود التي كانت مع المشركين خاصة لم يَبْعَثَهُ لشيء آخر... .
They have said '' one of habits of the people of Arab was not to abolish their treaties except themselves or a person from their families. Hence, the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) sent Amir Momenan (peace be upon him) in order to abolish treaties that he had with the polytheists not for other affairs.
Ibn Teimie Al-Harani, Abu Al-Abbas Ahmad Abd Al-Halim (died in 728 Hejira) Menhaj Al-Sonat Al-Nabavie v 5 p 493; researched by: D. Muhammad Reshad Salem; published by: Ghortoat Institute; first edition; 1406 Hejira
Fakhr Al-Din Razei has said in the book '' interpretation''
واختلفوا في السبب الذي لأجله أمَرَ علياً بقراءةِ هذه السورةِ عليهم وتبليغ هذه الرسالة إليهم، فقالوا السببَ فيه أن عادةَ العربِ أن لا يَتَوَلّى تقريرَ العهدِ ونقضِه إلا رجلٌ من الأقاربِ فلو تولاه أبو بكرٍ لجاز أن يقولوا هذا خلافُ ما نَعرف فينا من نقضِ العهود فربما لم يقبلوا، فأزيحت علتُهم بتولية ذلك علياً رضي الله عنه.
There is disagreement about the reason of sending Imam Ali (peace be upon him) to recite this Surah and to preach this mission. Then they have said '' the people of Arab were in the habit of contracting treaty and abolishing it through one of members of their family. Hence, Abubakr took its responsibility. It was common for polytheists to say that this is against thing that we know about breaking treaties. They may not have accepted it, but sending Imam Ali (peace be upon him) solved such problem.
Al-Razi Al-Shafei, Fakhr Al-Din Muhammad Ibn Omar Al-Tamimi (died in 604 Hejira) Al-Tafsir Al-Kabir Mafatih Al-Gheib v 15 p 175; published by: Dar Al-Kotob Al-Elmie; Beirut; first edition; 1421 Hejira; 2000
Ibn Hajar Asghalani has said in the book '' Fath Al-Bari''
ولهذا قال العلماء أن الحكمة في إرسال على بعد أبي بكر أن عادة العرب جرت بأن لا ينقض العهد إلا من عقده أو من هو منه بسبيل من أهل بيته فأجراهم في ذلك على عادتهم ولهذا قال لا يبلغ عنى إلا أنا أو رجل من أهل بيتي.
The scientists have said '' the reason of sending Imam Ali (peace be upon him) after Abubakr was '' the people of Arab did not use to break any treaties and only a person from their families contracted treaties. Then, according to their habits, the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) did such action and said a person from my family and I should express it.
Al-Asghalani Al-Shafei, Ahmad Ibn Ali Ibn Hajar Abolfazl (died in 852 Hejira) Fath Al-Bari Sharh Sahih Al-Bokhari v 8 p 321; researched by: Moheb Al-Din Al-Khatib; published by: Dar Al-Marefat; Beirut
Ibn Juzi in the book '' Kashf Al-Moshkel'', Ghortebi in the book '' interpretation'', Mobarakfuri in the book '' Tohfe Al-Ahuzi'' and other Sunni scientists have repeated such remarks.
Al-Mobarkfuri, Abu Al-Ala Muhammad Abd Al-Rahman Ibn Abd Al-Rahim (died in 1353 Hejira) Tahfa Al-Ahvazi Sharh Jame Al-Termezi v 8 p 387; published by: Dar Al-Kotob Al-Elmie; Beirut;
Ibn Al-Jozi Al-Hanbali, Jamal Al-Din Abu Al-Faraj Abd Al-Rahman Ibn Ali Ibn Muhammad (died in 597 Hejira) Kashf Al-Moshkel Min Hadith Al-Sahiein v 1 p 22; researched by: Ali Husain Al-Bavab; published by: Dar Al-Vatan; 1418 Hejira; 1997
Al-Ansari Al-Ghortobi, Abu Abdullah Muhammad Ibn Ahmad (died in 671 Hejira) Al-Jame Al-Ahkam Al-Ghoran; v 8 p 68; published by: Dar Al-Shoaib; Cairo
To answer this claim of the Sunni dignitaries, we will answer several points:
First: according to the narrations narrated with valid document, the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) said about the reason of sending Amir Momenan (peace be upon him) and abolishing Abubakr said in this way
«لَا يُبَلِّغَهُ إِلَّا أَنَا، أَوْ رَجُلٌ مِنِّي».
I should do mission myself or a person like me (a person that I am from his dynasty and he is from my dynasty).
We also said that the sentence has been distorted.
«أُبَلِّغَهُ أَنَا، أَوْ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِي»
To deny this virtue, the Sunni scientists have changed the sentence
«أنا أو رجل مني» into this sentence «أُبَلِّغَهُ أَنَا، أَوْ رَجُلٌ مِنْ أَهْلِ بَيْتِي»
Second: the mission of Amir Momenan (peace be upon him) was to break allegiances. But according to the clear words of the Quran the allegiance of every one with the prophet is acceptable until its due time as it has been said in the fourth verse of Tawba Surah
إِلَّا الَّذِينَ عَاهَدتُّم مِّنَ الْمُشْرِكِينَ ثمَُّ لَمْ يَنقُصُوكُمْ شَيًْا وَ لَمْ يُظَاهِرُواْ عَلَيْكُمْ أَحَدًا فَأَتِمُّواْ إِلَيْهِمْ عَهْدَهُمْ إِلىَ مُدَّتهِِمْ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يحُِبُّ الْمُتَّقِين
(But the treaties are) not dissolved with those Pagans with whom ye have entered into alliance and who have not subsequently failed you in aught, nor aided any one against you. So fulfil your engagements with them to the end of their term: for Allah loveth the righteous.
Abolishing any treaties and allegiances never happened so that the Sunni scientists want to deny this great virtue of Amir Momenan (peace be upon him) for this reason.
It has been said from the past '' a liar is a forgetful person''. Ibn Teimie has considered the habits of Arab as the reason of sending Amir Momenan (peace be upon him) whereas it has been narrated from Khatabi in the book '' Menhaj Al-Sane'' that they have stood against it and have rejected it
وقال الخطابي في كتاب شعار الدين: وقوله: «لا يؤدي عني إلا رجل من أهل بيتي» هو شيء جاء به أهلُ الكوفة عن زيد بن يثيع وهو متهمٌ في الرواية منسوبٌ إلى الرفض وعامةُ مَن بلغ عنه غيرُ أهلِ بيته؛ فقد بعث رسولُ الله صلى الله عليه وسلم أسعد بن زرارة إلى المدينة يدعو الناسَ إلى الإسلامِ ويعلم الأنصار القرآن ويفقههم في الدين وبعث العلاء بن الحضرمي إلى البحرين في مثل ذلك وبعث معاذا وأبا موسى إلى اليمن وبعث عتاب بن أسيد إلى مكة فأين قول من زعم أنه لا يبلغ عنه إلا رجل من أهل بيته.
Khatabi has said in the book '' Shoar Al-Din'' the people of Kufe have narrated from Zeid Bin Yosei this remark of the messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) '' only man from my dynasty expresss my remarks''. he has been accused of Rafezi in narrating narrations. Persons except his family have expressd remarks from the prophet. The messenger of God (peace of Allah be upon him and his descendants) sent Asad Bin Zarare to Medina to invite people toward the Islam and teach Quran and the religion to the people of Ansar. He also sent Ala Bin Azrami toward the people of Bahrain for this purpose waterier the prophet has expressd has been. In addition, he sent Maaz and Abu Musa toward Yaman and Etab Bin Asid toward the people of Mecca. Therefore, where are the witness of persons that say '' only persons from his family preach the remarks of the prophet?''
Menhaj Al-Sonat Al-Nabavie v 5 p 63
Of course, he has made a great mistake and it is that the purpose of the messenger of God from this sentence
«لا يؤدى عنى إلا رجل من أهل بيتي»
is not all of the missions for preaching , but his purpose is that only the story of hate of the polytheists in the ninth of Hijrat should be done by the prophet or a person from his family according to the order of God. Hence, the claim of Ibn Teimie, other people expressd the order of God and his messenger to people in other missions'' cannot abolish this unique virtue.
It is interesting that Ibn Teimei claimed clearly in his another book '' Abubakr had the responsibility of breaking treaty in this journey''. He has written in the book '' Al-Javab Al-Sahih''
ومثل إرساله أبا بكر أميرا على الحج سنة تسع ونبذه العهود ومناداته أن لا يحج بعد العام مشرك ولايطوف بالبيت عريان
Ibn Teimie Al-Harani, Abd Al-Salam Ibn Abdullah Ibn Abi Al-Ghsem (died in 652 Hejira) Al-Javab Al-Sahih Leman Badal Din Al-Masih v 6 p 367; researched by: Ali Sayyed Sobh Al-Madani; published by: Al-Madani; Egypt
Was Abubakr a person from the family of the prophet that was sent to break the treaty or Ibn Teimie tells a lie and Abubakr did not have such mission?
Hence, the contrast remarks of persons that have claimed are the best reason for the falsity of their claim.
Fourth: the Sunni scientists have mentioned no reasons for their claim. What is reason that the people of Arab had such habits? Why haven't the Sunni scientists mentioned a case as an example that proves that the Arabic people had such habits and they accepted the break of treaty from a person or his family and did not accept the remark of special representative of that person?
Hence, claim without reasons has no worth and we cannot the claim of the Sunni scientists in this case